|Scientific Name:||Geophaps smithii|
|Species Authority:||(Jardine & Selby, 1830)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2ce+3ce+4ce ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Garnett, S., McClellan, R., Symes, A., Taylor, J.|
This species has been uplisted to Vulnerable because it is suspected to have undergone rapid declines over the past three generations (17 years), owing to a combination of changed fire regimes and introduced predators: anthropogenic fires occurring over increasingly large scales often remove cover for the species, rendering it more vulnerable to multiple predators, particularly feral cats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Geophaps smithii is endemic to Western Australia and Northern Territory, Australia. The nominate subspecies has declined or disappeared from the west, east and south parts of its distribution, over the last 100 years. It is now only found in about half of its former range, in sub-coastal north Northern Territory. G. s. smithi was estimated to number c120,000 mature individuals in 2010 (115,000 in the mainland subpopulation and 5,000 on the Tiwi Islands) (Garnett et al. 2011). Subspecies blaauwi is recorded from remote areas of the west and north-west Kimberley region, northern Western Australia. However, there are few recent records, including from Kalumburu where it was common in the 1970s. G. s. blaauwi was estimated to number 6,000 mature individuals in 2010 (Garnett et al. 2011). Both subspecies are thought to be declining, with rapid declines in relative abundance at several monitored sites (Garnett et al. 2011).|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||39600|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The population of G. s. smithi was estimated at c120,000 mature individuals in 2010, based on an AOO of 6,000 km2 and a density of 0.2 birds/ha, while G. s. blaauwi was estimated at 6,000 mature individuals in 2010 based on 0.1 birds/ha in occupied habitat (Garnett et al. 2011), giving a total population estimate of 126,000 mature individuals (Garnett et al. 2011).
Populations in Kakadu have declined substantially over the last decade based on a decline in relative abundance from 0.24 in 2001-2004 to 0.05 in 2007-2009 (Woinarski 2009, in Garnett et al. 2011), while the population on the Tiwi Islands may have declined as a result of clearance for forestry. G. s. blaauwi is now extremely scarce in the eastern half of its former range. At Kalumburu, where it was historically very numerous, only 1 pair was found in searches during 1999 (Garnett and Crowley 2000), and it was reported to have declined dramatically in the Mitchell Plateau region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities 2011). The overall population is suspected to be undergoing a rapid decline over three generations (17 years).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The western subspecies blaauwi occurs primarily in open woodland, particularly between the rugged King Leopold Sandstones and alluvial flats. The eastern subspecies smithii primarily inhabits open forest and woodland dominated by Eucalyptus tetrodonta and E. miniata that has a structurally diverse understorey, usually in areas with a fire regime that promotes a mosaic of fire ages, including wet season burns, which promote grass diversity and year-round seed availability (Fraser et al. 2003). The ground cover is mostly tall grasses, though the pigeons are usually seen feeding in recently burnt areas, by roads and in short grass (Johnstone 1981, in Garnett et al. 2011). It appears to rely on perennial grass species which set seed relatively early (Fraser 2001). Breeding takes place in the dry season, between March and October, and it usually lays 2 eggs in nests made on the ground, most often at the base of a clump of grass. It feeds on seeds taken from bare ground. It may benefit from the recent spread of introduced feral cane toads Bufo marinus throughout large parts of its range, as the toads are likely to cause severe reductions in goanna monitor lizards Varanus spp. and snakes, which are likely to be major predators of the species and its eggs and young (J. Woinarski in litt. 2007).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||5.6|
|Major Threat(s):||Both subspecies are threatened by a change in fire regime to one where fires extend over large areas and the mosaic of fire ages is erased (Fraser 2001; Fraser et al. 2003; Woinarski et al. 2007). Although early fires burn some nests; extensive, late dry season fires, promote uniform vegetation of tall annual sorghum. Most areas in which the species persists are still under Aboriginal management or have a fire regime that promotes a mosaic of vegetation ages. Climate change may cause even more unfavourable fire regimes (J. Woinarski in litt. 2007). Two further threats are associated with fire. Predation by feral cats Felis catus may increase when extensive fires reduce cover (Woinarski 2004) and, in the Northern Territory, exotic pasture grasses, particularly Gamba Grass Andropogon gayanus, are invading habitat and change the vegetation structures because the fires they generate are so intense (Rossiter et al. 2003, in Garnett et al. 2011). Grazing by cattle and other livestock may cause habitat degradation in some areas, and there has been some habitat clearance on the Tiwi Islands and in the Darwin-Daly area (Woinarski 2004, in Garnett et al. 2011).|
Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation measures are known for this species. Conservation Actions Proposed
Investigate effects of the spread of exotic pasture grasses and grazing on behaviour and abundance (J. Woinarski in litt. 2007). Determine breeding success and the factors that affect it (particularly the significance of feral cat predation) (J. Woinarski in litt. 2007). Develop robust monitoring techniques, and monitor abundance in landscapes under different management regimes, or in selected accessible parts of range. Continue to undertake annual fire planning and management, managing land with a fine-scale mosaic of burning across the range. Control populations of introduced herbivores and cats as appropriate.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Geophaps smithii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22690689A38954667. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.|
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