||Columba elphinstonii (Sykes, 1833)
||Nilgiri Woodpigeon, Nilgiri Wood Pigeon, Nilgiri Wood-Pigeon
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||42 cm. Large pigeon with mostly chestnut-maroon upperparts and greyish head and underparts. Prominent black-and-white patterned hindneck. Uniform dark slaty tail. Juveniles have less distinct neck pattern and are duller above with chestnut fringing on mantle and wing-coverts. Similar spp. Mountain Imperial Pigeon Ducula badia lacks hindneck markings and has dark band across base of tail. Voice Loud who, followed by deep 3-4 note who-who-who.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Praveen, J., Somasundaram, S., Vijayan, L., Subramanya, S., Vinod, U. & Koparde, P.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Peet, N., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Allinson, T, Westrip, J.
This pigeon qualifies as Vulnerable owing to its small, declining population; a consequence of the widespread destruction of its forest habitat.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2007 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Columba elphinstonii is thought to be endemic to the hill-ranges of the Western Ghats, south-west India, occurring from north-west Maharashtra (where it may be present in 10 protected areas [Mehta and Kulkarni 2012, Koparde et al. 2015, ebird 2016]) south, through Karnataka and Goa, to southern Kerala and western Tamil Nadu. The species does not necessarily occur across all suitable forest patches in Sahyadri Tiger Reserve – a part of Northern Western Ghats (Koparde et al. 2015), which is suggestive of possible overestimation in the current projected range of the species in Western Ghats. However, observations by Subramanya (2005) and those posted in ebird (2016) suggest that the species may occur, on adjacent hills like Nandi Hills, outside Western Ghats region, which suggests a possible underestimation of the species distribution outside Western Ghats region. It was once considered common and widespread, but has undergone a major decline, which is thought to be continuing owing to on-going forest loss.|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||334000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||20|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2250|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This may be conservative as the species may be rare in suitable habitat as encounter rates of 0.03-0.6 individuals/km have been recorded (Mehta and Kulkarni 2012) and c.71 individuals were found during surveys of Sahyadri Tiger Reserve (1165km2) (Koparde et al. 2015). The population size estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals (P. O. Nameer in litt. 2003).|
Trend Justification: This species is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate, based on on-going rates of habitat loss and potential hunting pressure.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|