|Scientific Name:||Columba oenas|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
Vagrant:Afghanistan; Faroe Islands; Gibraltar; Japan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lebanon; Libya; Oman; Saudi Arabia; Tunisia; United Arab Emirates
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 561,000-1,040,000 pairs, which equates to 1,120,000-2,070,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.80% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,400,000-2,600,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2013 shows a moderate increase (EBCC 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is found in generally fairly open country (Baptista et al. 1997). It uses woodland-edge habitat, parks and farmland with mature trees or other habitats offering suitable nest-hole sites (Tucker and Heath 1994). It mostly feeds on the ground taking seeds, grain, green leaves, buds, flowers and some invertebrates (Baptista et al. 1997). It is wholly migratory in northern Europe and mainly resident in southern Europe (Tucker and Heath 1994, Baptista et al. 1997). Populations are progressively less migratory further south in the range (Baptista et al. 1997).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5.3|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||In parts of its range, the species underwent severe declines after the 1950s with the introduction of new herbicides, although populations have recovered to a limited extent (Baptista et al. 1997).|
Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex II. There are no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently needed for this species.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Columba oenas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22690088A86074207.Downloaded on 24 April 2017.|
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