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Columba livia 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Columbiformes Columbidae

Scientific Name: Columba livia
Species Authority: Gmelin, 1789
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Rock Dove, Common Pigeon, Rock Dove, Rock DoveI
French Pigeon Biset
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Cape Verde; Chad; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Egypt; Estonia; Ethiopia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Western Sahara; Yemen
Introduced:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Canada; Cayman Islands; Chile; Colombia; Comoros; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; Indonesia; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Martinique; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montserrat; Mozambique; Namibia; Nauru; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Puerto Rico; Réunion; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Swaziland; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uganda; United States (Georgia - Native); United States Minor Outlying Islands; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:
Eritrea
Present - origin uncertain:
Marshall Islands
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:61000000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):4500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population is estimated to number c.260,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 11,000,000-22,600,000 pairs, which equates to 22,100,000-45,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend Justification:  The population size is suspected to be decreasing owing to interbreeding with domestic form; declines have been recorded in Israel (del Hoyo et al. 1997).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species's natural habitat consists usually of rock faces, ledges in caves and sea cliffs where birds nest. The feral form is commensal with man and is particularly abundant in cities. It avoids areas of tall and dense vegetation. Breeding season varies between regions. It typically feeds on grains but may also take some invertebrates. Natural populations are resident and sedentary (Baptista et al. 1997).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):5.8
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is difficult to evaluate the conservation status and security of "natural" populations due to the confusion concerning the degree of mixing with feral birds. Natural populations are threatened by interbreeding with feral pigeons in many areas (Baptista et al. 1997).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex II. There are no known conservation measures for this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Within Europe, management is needed to keep feral birds geographically isolated from natural populations and monitoring is needed to determine the extent of natural populations (Johnston et al. 1988).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Columba livia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22690066A86070297. . Downloaded on 08 December 2016.
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