|Scientific Name:||Columba livia Gmelin, 1789|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Cape Verde; Chad; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Egypt; Estonia; Ethiopia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia - Introduced, European Russia); San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Western Sahara; Yemen
Introduced:American Samoa; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Canada; Cayman Islands; Chile; Colombia; Comoros; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Denmark; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; Indonesia; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Lesotho; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Martinique; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montserrat; Mozambique; Namibia; Nauru; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Puerto Rico; Réunion; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Swaziland; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uganda; United States; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Wallis and Futuna; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Present - origin uncertain:Marshall Islands
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.260,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). The European population is estimated at 11,000,000-22,600,000 pairs, which equates to 22,100,000-45,200,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The population size is suspected to be decreasing owing to interbreeding with domestic form; declines have been recorded in Israel (del Hoyo et al. 1997).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species's natural habitat consists usually of rock faces, ledges in caves and sea cliffs where birds nest. The feral form is commensal with man and is particularly abundant in cities. It avoids areas of tall and dense vegetation. Breeding season varies between regions. It typically feeds on grains but may also take some invertebrates. Natural populations are resident and sedentary (Baptista et al. 1997).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5.8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||It is difficult to evaluate the conservation status and security of "natural" populations due to the confusion concerning the degree of mixing with feral birds. Natural populations are threatened by interbreeding with feral pigeons in many areas (Baptista et al. 1997).|
Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex II. There are no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Within Europe, management is needed to keep feral birds geographically isolated from natural populations and monitoring is needed to determine the extent of natural populations (Johnston et al. 1988).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Columba livia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22690066A86070297.Downloaded on 25 March 2018.|