Eurostopodus diabolicus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Caprimulgiformes Caprimulgidae

Scientific Name: Eurostopodus diabolicus
Species Authority: Stresemann, 1931
Common Name(s):
English Heinrich's Nightjar, Satanic Eared-Nightjar, Satanic Nightjar
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 26-27 cm. Medium-sized, dark nightjar. Greyish-brown upperparts, spotted and speckled brown, buff and tawny. Blackish streaks on crown, continuous with mantle. Brown underparts, barred and spotted cinnamon and pale buff. White band on throat but no white visible in wings or tail. Female has buff band on throat. Similar spp. Great-eared Nightjar E. macrotis is much larger and paler, with longer ear-tufts and pale nuchal collar. Female Grey Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus, female Savanna Nightjar C. affinis and juvenile Sulawesi Nightjar C. celebensis are similar, but smaller and paler. Voice Little known, but flight calls may include weak screams, loud whirrip notes and soft churrs.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Bishop, K., Collar, N. & Hogberg, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
Although recent records suggest that this species may be widespread and overlooked rather than rare, and that it tolerates habitat disturbance, it is precautionarily treated as Vulnerable because it is thought to have a small population, which is in decline owing to forest loss and degradation. Fieldwork is required to clarify its status, and this may lead to its downlisting.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Eurostopodus diabolicus is endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia, where it is known from mountain ranges in the north and centre of the island (Riley and Wardill 2003), with unconfirmed records from the south (BirdLife International 2001) and a probable sighting in July 1996 and additional reports from 1995 from the adjacent island of Buton (Sykes 2009). Although it appears to be very thinly distributed and genuinely rare overall, it is locally not uncommon, and its nocturnal habits and associated difficulties in identification have probably led to it being overlooked. The extensive and largely unsurveyed upland areas of Sulawesi, covered by undisturbed or lightly disturbed forest, imply that the species could be more widespread than currently known (K. D. Bishop in litt. 2012). It must have suffered from loss of habitat at lower altitudes, although its ability to utilise secondary habitats (Riley and Wardill 2003) and its recent discovery in montane forest suggests that it may be locally secure.

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 2400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 250
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1750
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  Logging and rattan collection at the most well known site are degrading habitat. This practice is likely to be prevalent throughout its range and as a result the species is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits tropical lowland and lower montane, evergreen rainforest, from 250 m to 1,750 m, tolerating at least selective logging. It is presumed to be sedentary. It has been found incubating in June and July (Boon and Faustino 2005).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 5.4
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The primary threat to this poorly known species is presumably forest loss and fragmentation at lower altitudes. This has been extensive in the Minahasa peninsula of north Sulawesi, owing to land clearance for transmigration settlements, shifting cultivation, plantation agriculture and large-scale logging. Logging and rattan collection are reportedly common at the best known site for this species, the Anaso road, Lore Lindu National Park (Boon and Faustino 2005). However, much forest remains in hilly and mountainous regions, which is currently relatively secure.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded in one protected area, Lore Lindu National Park, where most recent confirmed observations have been made, and also in Gunung Klabat Proposed Wildlife Reserve. In addition, there are unconfirmed reports from Tangkoko-Batuangus and Panua Nature Reserves.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Obtain recordings of its vocalisations and use these to facilitate further searches for the species, including in south-east Sulawesi and on Buton (Sykes 2009). Conduct extensive surveys to establish its distribution, status, ecological requirements and main threats. Propose further forested areas supporting populations of this, and other threatened species endemic to Sulawesi, for protection.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Eurostopodus diabolicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22689670A37997902. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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