|Scientific Name:||Apus caffer|
|Species Authority:||(Lichtenstein, 1823)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Angola (Angola); Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Ghana; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Malawi; Mali; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Portugal; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:Finland; Gambia; Gibraltar; Malta; Mauritania; Norway; Tunisia; Yemen
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population size has not been quantified. The European population is estimated at 110-200 pairs, which equates to 220-400 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015), but Europe forms <5% of the global range.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be increasing owing to the construction of bridges which it utilises for nesting (del Hoyo et al. 1999). The small European population trend is not known (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found over a wide range of habitats from arid savanna and Mediterranean scrub to equatorial forest (Chantler and Boesman 2016). It typically uses disused Little Swift (Apus affinis) or certain swallow (Hirundo) nests, though niches in rock-faces or buildings are sometimes used. In disused nests, it uses feathers and down adhered with saliva as lining; in rock sites it makes a shallow cup of feathers and vegetable matter agglutinated with saliva. It breeds from late May in Spain, May in Morocco, July in Senegambia, April and June-July in Nigeria, February in Sudan, May-June in Ethiopia, May and July in the Democratic Republic of Congo, January-February, August and October in Angola, August-December in Zambia, September in Malawi, August-April in Zimbabwe, November-February in Namibia, August-March in Transvaal with a peak in South Africa between October and January. Typically lays one to three eggs (Chantler and Boesman 2016). It feeds on small flying insects (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species is migratory in the northernmost and southernmost parts of the range; the Spanish population is present from early May to August–October and some birds are recorded into early December, with autumn migration through the Straits of Gibraltar occurring mid-August to mid-October. The southern African population is present from August to May (Chantler and Boesman 2016).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||12.5|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex I. Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within its European range.
Conservation Actions Proposed
No conservation measures are currently required for this species within its European range.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Apus caffer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22686882A89497219.Downloaded on 28 February 2017.|
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