Amazona guildingii


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Amazona guildingii
Species Authority: (Vigors, 1837)
Common Name(s):
English St Vincent Amazon, St. Vincent Amazon, Saint Vincent Amazon, Saint Vincent Parrot, St. Vincent Parrot
Spanish Amazona de San Vincente

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D1+2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Wege, D.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D.
Habitat conservation, law enforcement and public awareness campaigns have halted this species's slide towards extinction, and even reversed some of the previous declines. However, it still qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a very small population and range on a single island.

2012 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Amazona guildingii occurs on the upper west and east ridges of St Vincent (St Vincent and the Grenadines), where it declined seriously through the 20th century until the early 1980s. Following recent conservation action, numbers increased from 370-470 individuals in 1982 to approximately 519 in 2002, and then to c.734 in 2004 (Greenwood 1994, Culzac-Wilson et al. 2003, Wege D. in litt. 2005).

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Greenwood (1994)

Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits moist forest, mainly at 125-1,000 m, preferring mature growth at lower altitude. It feeds in the canopy, on a wide variety of fruits, seeds and flowers (Raffaele et al. 1998), but sometimes forages in partially cultivated areas. Breeding takes place between January and June, peaking in February-May, in loose aggregations of approximately 12 individuals, each defending its own nest site but tolerating the close proximity of nearby pairs (Culzac-Wilson 2005). During wetter years, birds may not attempt to breed (Culzac-Wilson 2005). Nests are generally in cavities in mature, large trees (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hunting for food, trapping for the cage-bird trade and habitat loss were the principal causes of this species's decline. Deforestation has been the result of forestry activities, the expansion of banana cultivation, charcoal production, the loss of nesting-trees felled by trappers seeking young birds for trade, and natural events such as hurricanes and volcanic eruptions (Snyder et al. 2000). The introduced nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus undermines large trees causing them to topple, reducing the number of suitable nest trees (Culzac-Wilson 2005). A cross-country road is planned, funded by the Taiwanese government, which would destroy large areas of suitable habitat and increase deforestation rates (Culzac-Wilson et al. 2003). The genetic isolation of the separate subpopulations may present further cause for concern.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II. Domestic legislation protecting the species is enforced. The St Vincent Parrot Reserve was established to protect all occupied habitat (Juniper and Parr 1998). Successful public education campaigns have apparently improved public perceptions of the species and, combined with the above measures, have reversed some of the previous declines. Captive populations exist in St Vincent and Barbados (Woolcock 2000, Sweeney 2001). A comprehensive species conservation plan was published in 2005 (Culzac-Wilson 2005).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to monitor the population. Continue and enhance existing protective measures, including development of the captive breeding programme. Study the reproductive success, movement patterns and habitat requirements of this species (Snyder et al. 2000). Oppose plans for the cross-country road and propose a better option. Implement the species conservation plan.

Citation: BirdLife International 2013. Amazona guildingii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 29 August 2015.
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