Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Amazona arausiaca
Species Authority: (Müller, 1776)
Common Name(s):
English Red-necked Amazon, Red-necked Parrot, Jacquot
Spanish Amazona Cabenazul, Amazona Cabeza Azul, Amazona Gorgirroja
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 40 cm. Green parrot with blue forecrown and face, with white bare orbital area. Red patch on throat (sometimes absent). Red-and-yellow speculum. Primaries tipped blackish. Similar spp. Imperial Parrot A. imperialis is larger and darker, with largely purple body. Voice Harsh screeches, squawks and yapping scre-ah, higher pitched than A. imperialis. Vocalizations are different in the northern and southern regions of Dominica.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D1+2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Reillo, P.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D., Khwaja, N.
Conservation action has helped this species recover from an all-time population low in 1980. It still qualifies as Vulnerable because numbers remain very small and its range is small and restricted to a single island. However, if there are any future declines in available habitat, it may qualify for uplisting to Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Amazona arausiaca is concentrated around the Morne Diablotin Massif in the north of Dominica, with birds also occupying habitat in the far north (Morne au Diable region), east, south-east and centre of the island, and Morne Trois Pitons National Park in the south (Zamore and Durand 1998, Wiley et al. 2004, P. R. Reillo in litt. 2007). Many areas have been reoccupied after the species disappeared from them in the aftermath of the destructive Hurricane David in 1979 (Zamore and Durand 1998). It is described as "ubiquitous" in forested areas, and "locally common" on agricultural land. Numbers have risen from possibly as few as 150 birds in 1980, to possibly as many as 1,000 in the present day (P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 100
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 2-5
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 800
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The most recent population estimate stands at 850-1,000 mature individuals (P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012), roughly equivalent to 1,200-1,500 individuals in total.

Trend Justification:  There are no new data on population trends, but the species is assumed to still be increasing.
Current Population Trend: Increasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 850-1000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It mainly occurs in the canopy of rainforests, generally between sea level and 800 m, but occasionally to 1,200 m. It has become a regular visitor to coastal areas (Juniper and Parr 1998, P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012), descending to sea level throughout the year to search for food (Zamore and Durand 1998, Reillo and Durand 2008). There are an increasing number of records from agricultural land, mainly in citrus crop, passion fruit and mango plantations (Zamore and Durand 1998). Breeding takes place between February and June, with nests usually situated in the cavities of large forest trees, such as Dacryodes excelsa and Sloanea caribaea. These are usually 11-25 m above the ground and commonly have a protective covering of vines, bromeliads or creepers (Juniper and Parr 1998, Zamore and Durand 1998).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 12.3
Movement patterns: Nomadic

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss at lower elevations has been mainly caused by clearance for agriculture (Collar 1997); although replanting with fruit crops has benefited the species (Reillo and Durand 2008), frugivory by the parrots has sparked conflict with local farmers (Douglas 2011). Hurricane-related damage has also been important: another hurricane of the magnitude of Hurricane David could reverse recent population increases. Hunting and illegal trade are now low-level threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II. It is fully protected under domestic legislation. This species is represented by a maximum of 1000 individuals and continues to be widely persecuted by locals protecting crops.  There are however no records of ex situ breeding (Lexicon of Parrots).  Much remaining habitat is within the Northern and Central forest reserves, and the Morne Trois Pitons and Morne Diablotin national parks, but adjacent areas of critical importance are not protected (Juniper and Parr 1998). Since 1980, it has benefited from joint government and non-government efforts to protect its habitat and sensitise local people to its needs. Research methods have been improved recently to maximise ecological information gained whilst minimising disturbance to the birds, and study has yielded important information on nesting behaviour and parental care; similarly, census methodologies have improved to give more accurate estimates of density and population size (Reillo and Durand 2008). The population is monitored annually. A recent PhD project examined the species's interaction with fruit crops on Dominica (P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue enforcement of the protection of Morne Diablotin and Morne Trois Pitons national parks and the Central and Northern forest reserves. Continue to monitor the population annually. Investigate the effects of nest-site (and food) competition between this species and A. imperialis. Continue to prohibit trade in this species, exports for ex situ captive breeding, and import of non-native psittacines as pets on Dominica (P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Amazona arausiaca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22686395A39053863. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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