Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Pyrrhura lepida
Species Authority: (Wagler, 1832)
Common Name(s):
English Pearly Parakeet
Spanish Cotorra Pulcra
Pyrrhura perlata perlata Stotz et al. (1996)
Pyrrhura perlata perlata Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Pyrrhura perlata perlata Collar and Andrew (1988)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Pyrrhura perlata, Pearly Parakeet (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) takes the name P. lepida following Collar (1997) because P. rhodogaster, Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) takes the name P. perlata following discovery that types of the name perlata were immatures of this form.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, although it shows some tolerance of degraded landscapes, it is nevertheless suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Pyrrhura lepida occurs in north-east Brazil south of the Amazon (Juniper and Parr 1998). There are three recognised subspecies: the nominate in Belém and near the rio Capim, Pará, east to São Luís, Maranhão; coerulescens in north Maranhão east of Rosário; and anerythra in the catchment of the upper rio Xingú and its tributaries, from the rio Pracuí and the left bank of the rio Tocantins (Juniper and Parr 1998). It is generally uncommon and declining.

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 548000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is preliminarily estimated to number at least 10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 6,700 mature individuals. This requires confirmation.

Trend Justification:  This species is suspected to lose 47-64.5% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). However, given the species appears to have some degree of tolerance to habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt 2011), it is suspected to decline by 30-49% over three generations.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 6700 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs in lowland terra firme humid forest, being reported from forest edge, clearings and second growth (Parker et al. 1996, Juniper and Parr 1998).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Despite an apparent tolerance of some habitat degradation, it is perhaps close to extinction in coastal areas of north Maranhão, owing to large-scale deforestation (Juniper and Parr 1998). It occurs within protected areas, but their integrity is compromised by illegal logging (Juniper and Parr 1998). Deforestation in the Amazon basin is expected to increase as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
*Census and monitor populations to assess the global population and demographic trends and to refine the distribution and locate strongholds. *Investigate its ecology, threats and conservation requirements. Strengthen the network of protected areas within remaining core habitat. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Pyrrhura lepida. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22685797A37907774. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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