Conuropsis carolinensis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Conuropsis carolinensis
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Carolina Parakeet
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Brooks, T., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S.
This species formerly occurred in southeastern USA, but it is now Extinct, primarily as a result of persecution. The last wild records are of the subspecies ludoviciana in 1910.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Extinct (EX)
2004 Extinct (EX)
2000 Extinct (EX)
1994 Extinct (EX)
1988 Extinct (EX)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Conuropsis carolinensis was endemic to the eastern USA, with the nominate race ranging from Florida to Virginia, and ludovicianus, through the Mississippi-Missouri drainage (Forshaw and Cooper 1989). Birds were still common at the beginning of the 19th century but, in 1832, Audubon noted their decline, which followed increasing human settlement moving inland from the east (Saikku 1991). The last specimens were collected by Chapman near Lake Okeechobee, Florida, in 1904, although rumours of its survival persisted into the 1930s (McKinley 1985). The last captive bird died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1918 (Joines 1985).

Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
United States
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Birds were wide-ranging but their typical habitat was cypress and sycamore trees along rivers and swamps (Saikku 1991).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 7.3
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main causes of the species's extinction were persecution (for food, crop protection, aviculture and the millinery trade), and deforestation (especially of the bottomlands), probably compounded by its gregarious nature (Saikku 1991), and by competition with introduced bees (McKinley 1960).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Conuropsis carolinensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22685776A38625653. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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