Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Psittacara erythrogenys
Species Authority: Lesson, 1844
Common Name(s):
English Red-masked Parakeet, Red-masked Conure
Spanish Aratinga de Guayaquil, Perico Caretirrojo
Aratinga erythrogenys (Lesson, 1844)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Psittacara erythrogenys (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Aratinga.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Baquerizo, J., Horstman, E. & Orrantia, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
This species has a moderately small population which has suffered some severe local declines (primarily owing to trapping) but remains common in some other areas. The overall population decline is likely to be moderately rapid. It is consequently classified as Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2011 Near Threatened (NT)
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Psittacara erythrogenys occurs from Manabí, north-west Ecuador, south to Lambayeque and Cajamarca, north-west Peru, with the high Andes marking its easternmost limit, at least in Ecuador (Best et al. 1995, Juniper and Parr 1998,  Clements and Shany 2001). There are very few records from the centre of its range, in Guayas, El Oro and Azuay, Ecuador, which may effectively divide the population into two distinct sub-populations (Best et al. 1995). The total population is unlikely to be smaller than 10,000, with the majority occurring in Ecuador (Best et al. 1995). Although considered 'common' in parts of its range (Best and Clarke 1991, Best 1992, Williams and Tobias 1994, Clements and Shany 2001), there have been severe local declines (Ridgely 1981a, Best et al. 1995), and there is recent anecdotal evidence that numbers are still falling (E. Horstman in litt. 2011, R. Orrantia and J. Baquerizo in litt. 2011).

Countries occurrence:
Ecuador; Peru
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Curaçao; Puerto Rico; Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 106000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 800
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species's population size has not been formally estimated, but, in the absence of sufficient data, it is preliminarily suspected to number more than 10,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 6,700 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  The species's population is suspected to be undergoing at least a moderately rapid decline owing to trapping for the pet trade coupled with habitat loss and fragmentation. Further research is required.

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 6700 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs in a range of habitats - from humid forest through deciduous forest, dry Acacia scrub to open, sparsely vegetated desert and intensely farmed areas to towns - but principally inhabits arid areas (Juniper and Parr 1998), from sea-level to 2,500 m, but most frequently below 1,500 m (Best et al. 1995). It nests in tree cavities, but the extent to which it tolerates logged forest and can breed successfully in small woodlots or even isolated trees is unclear (Best et al. 1995). Observations indicate that it can persist in highly degraded forest (E. Horstman in litt. 2011).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 7
Movement patterns: Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It suffers heavily from local trade in Peru and Ecuador, where it is a common and highly sought-after pet (Best and Clarke 1991, Williams and Tobias 1994, Best et al. 1995). It is also internationally traded from Peru, but its status is clouded by the misdeclaring of traded birds (Inskipp and Corrigan 1992) and pre-trade mortality (Ramos and Iñigo 1985), which both demonstrate the complexities of estimating true numbers taken from the wild (Best et al. 1995). The species is frequently confiscated by the Ecuadorian authorities (E. Horstman in litt. 2011, R. Orrantia and J. Baquerizo in litt. 2011). Despite the threat of trapping, the main causes of recent declines may be habitat loss and fragmentation (R. Orrantia and J. Baquerizo in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to obtain a population estimate. Research current threat from trade. Enforce trade restrictions. Census and monitor population. Monitor rates of habitat loss and fragmentation. Study its ability to persist in altered and fragmented habitats.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Psittacara erythrogenys. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22685672A37909614. . Downloaded on 06 October 2015.
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