Loriculus flosculus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Loriculus flosculus
Species Authority: Wallace, 1864
Common Name(s):
English Flores Hanging-parrot, Wallace's Hanging-Parrot, Wallace's Hanging Parrot
Spanish Lorículo de Flores

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Imansyah, J. & Trainor, C.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
This parrot qualifies as Endangered because it has a very small range, in which its habitat is severely fragmented and declining in extent and quality, with rapid declines suspected in the population. Its status is likely to deteriorate further if conservation measures are not implemented in the near future.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Loriculus flosculus is endemic to Flores and satellite islands, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, where it is known from eight documented localities, at some of which it is locally common in groups of up to 20 birds (BirdLife International 2001). At Tanjung Kerita Mese, population density was estimated at c.10 birds per hectare. The species is quite easily overlooked; however, its overall rarity cannot be disputed, and its apparently restricted habitat and altitudinal range suggest that it must be both numerically constrained and susceptible to further habitat loss. Recent records on Rinca Island from outside its known altitudinal range and preferred habitat (Imansyah et al. 2007) suggest that it may be more cosmopolitan in its distribution and therefore less threatened, but this requires further research.

Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It was thought to occur exclusively in primary semi-evergreen forest, particularly with an abundance of fruiting figs (an important food source), but more recently it has also been recorded in moist deciduous forest on limestone and Eucalyptus forest (C. Trainor in litt. 2007). Its range apparently closely equates to that of these two forest-types on Flores, although it also visits degraded roadside habitat. It occurs chiefly in a narrow altitudinal band between 600 m and 1,200 m, but has been recorded down to sea-level in deciduous forest on Rinca Island (Imansyah et al. 2007).

Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat destruction through the combined impacts of firewood collection, commercial logging, timber extraction for construction materials and clearance for agriculture together represent the most pertinent threat. The loss and fragmentation of forests is already extensive on Flores, where no semi-evergreen forest below 1,000 m is included within gazetted protected areas. These threats are compounded by human population expansion, with large volumes of timber required for housing construction, and the fact that there is little or no governmental enforcement of laws. Moist deciduous forest is currently being extensively cleared through land grabbing and establishment of agricultural areas, a factor that is inevitably reducing the range and population of this species. Forest clearance continues in the coastal belt to make way for crops, and illegal logging continues in protected areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Two recent surveys have targeted endemic birds on Flores. Two sites at which this species occurs are proposed for establishment as protected areas: Tanjung Kerita Mese and Egon Iliwuli (on Gunung Egon).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct a targeted survey for the species to identify important sites, with a view to affording them protection. Conduct research into its status and habitat use (with particular regard to feeding ecology and forest fragmentation) such that long-term management of the species is facilitated. Monitor trade across Indonesia to investigate whether this presents a significant threat. Support the rapid establishment of Tanjung Kerita Mese proposed protected area along with additional intact stretches of forest at Nggorang Bowosie (220 km2) and Gunung Egon (150 km2). Initiate awareness campaigns to elicit the support of local people in protecting forests.

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Loriculus flosculus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 29 August 2015.
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