Loriculus flosculus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Loriculus flosculus
Species Authority: Wallace, 1864
Common Name(s):
English Flores Hanging-parrot, Wallace's Hanging-Parrot, Wallace's Hanging Parrot
Spanish Lorículo de Flores
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 11-12 cm. Arboreal parrot. Male predominantly green, lighter on underparts, with red bill, elongated red spot on throat, orange legs and dark red nape, bright red rump and uppertail-coverts. Female has red on throat reduced or absent. Similar spp. All other parrots on Flores are much larger. Tawny-breasted Parrot-finch Erythrura hyperythra is smaller, has underparts rich buff and behaves rather differently. Voice Sharp screeching strrt strrt in flight. Also chi-chi-chi-chi-chi when performing an apparent display flight.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Imansyah, J. & Trainor, C.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
This parrot qualifies as Endangered because it has a very small range, in which its habitat is severely fragmented and declining in extent and quality, with rapid declines suspected in the population. Its status is likely to deteriorate further if conservation measures are not implemented in the near future.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Endangered (EN)
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Loriculus flosculus is endemic to Flores and satellite islands, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, where it is known from eight documented localities, at some of which it is locally common in groups of up to 20 birds (BirdLife International 2001). At Tanjung Kerita Mese, population density was estimated at c.10 birds per hectare. The species is quite easily overlooked; however, its overall rarity cannot be disputed, and its apparently restricted habitat and altitudinal range suggest that it must be both numerically constrained and susceptible to further habitat loss. Recent records on Rinca Island from outside its known altitudinal range and preferred habitat (Imansyah et al. 2007) suggest that it may be more cosmopolitan in its distribution and therefore less threatened, but this requires further research.

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 1400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 8
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 250
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1050
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The species's distribution seems to correspond with the two major natural forest types on Flores: moist evergreen and semi-deciduous. These are being cleared for agriculture and the collection of firewood and construction materials. Hence, the species is suspected to be in decline, although the likely rate of decline has not been estimated.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It was thought to occur exclusively in primary semi-evergreen forest, particularly with an abundance of fruiting figs (an important food source), but more recently it has also been recorded in moist deciduous forest on limestone and Eucalyptus forest (C. Trainor in litt. 2007). Its range apparently closely equates to that of these two forest-types on Flores, although it also visits degraded roadside habitat. It occurs chiefly in a narrow altitudinal band between 600 m and 1,200 m, but has been recorded down to sea-level in deciduous forest on Rinca Island (Imansyah et al. 2007).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.4
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat destruction through the combined impacts of firewood collection, commercial logging, timber extraction for construction materials and clearance for agriculture together represent the most pertinent threat. The loss and fragmentation of forests is already extensive on Flores, where no semi-evergreen forest below 1,000 m is included within gazetted protected areas. These threats are compounded by human population expansion, with large volumes of timber required for housing construction, and the fact that there is little or no governmental enforcement of laws. Moist deciduous forest is currently being extensively cleared through land grabbing and establishment of agricultural areas, a factor that is inevitably reducing the range and population of this species. Forest clearance continues in the coastal belt to make way for crops, and illegal logging continues in protected areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Two recent surveys have targeted endemic birds on Flores. Two sites at which this species occurs are proposed for establishment as protected areas: Tanjung Kerita Mese and Egon Iliwuli (on Gunung Egon).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct a targeted survey for the species to identify important sites, with a view to affording them protection. Conduct research into its status and habitat use (with particular regard to feeding ecology and forest fragmentation) such that long-term management of the species is facilitated. Monitor trade across Indonesia to investigate whether this presents a significant threat. Support the rapid establishment of Tanjung Kerita Mese proposed protected area along with additional intact stretches of forest at Nggorang Bowosie (220 km2) and Gunung Egon (150 km2). Initiate awareness campaigns to elicit the support of local people in protecting forests.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Loriculus flosculus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22685428A37936977. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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