Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Loriculus tener
Species Authority: Sclater, 1877
Common Name(s):
English Bismarck Hanging-parrot, Green-fronted Hanging-Parrot, Green-fronted Hanging Parrot
Spanish Lorículo de las Bismarck
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Bishop, K., Eastwood, C., Pilgrim, J. & Dutson, G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A.
This poorly known species is classified as Near Threatened because it is thought to have a moderately small population which is restricted to very low lying forest. These areas are being rapidly converted to oil palm plantations and hence the population is undoubtedly declining.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Loriculus tener is endemic to New Britain, New Ireland and New Hanover (= Lavongai) in Papua New Guinea. It is, and appears always to have been, a rare species but it is unobtrusive and likely to have been overlooked. The few recent records have been from forest edge, where it is more easily observed (Mayr 1934, Gilliard and LeCroy 1967, K.D. Bishop in litt. 1996, G. Dutson pers. obs. 1997-1998, C. Eastwood in litt. 1999, J. Pilgrim in litt. 1999).

Countries occurrence:
Papua New Guinea
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 26300
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to be in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, equating to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  Buchanan et al. (2008) calculated the rate of forest loss within the species's range on New Britain as 18.2% over ten years.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 10000-19999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits lowland rainforest to about 500 m, although mostly below 200 m. It is not known whether it can breed in degraded habitats.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.4
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Most of the accessible lowland forests in its range have been logged or are under logging concessions. On New Britain, lowland forest clearance for conversion to oil palm plantations has been intense in recent decades and the island accounts for approximately half of Papua New Guinea's timber exports (K.D. Bishop in litt. 1996). On New Britain, nearly 20% of habitat suitable for this species has been cleared in the last 10 years and this trend is ongoing (K.D. Bishop in litt. 1996). If it proves to be unable to survive in logged forest, it would be threatened on account of its small population and the rate of habitat degradation across its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Identify and effectively protect a network of reserves, including some containing large areas of unlogged lowland forest and some large community based conservation areas. Continue to monitor trends in forest loss. Research its tolerance of degraded forest. Monitor populations in a number of primary forest and degraded forest sites on the islands.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Loriculus tener. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22685410A38264893. . Downloaded on 06 October 2015.
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