Eunymphicus cornutus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Eunymphicus cornutus
Species Authority: (Gmelin, 1788)
Common Name(s):
English Horned Parakeet
Spanish Perico Cornudo
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Eunymphicus cornutus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into E. cornutus and E. uvaeensis following Juniper and Parr (1998).
Identification information: 32 cm. Largely green, crested parakeet with yellower underparts and nape, bluish wings and tail, and black-and-red face mask. Two wispy, red-tipped, black crest feathers. Similar spp. New Caledonian Parakeet Cyanoramphus saisseti has no crest and different head pattern, lacking black and yellow. Voice Often located by nasal kho-khoot contact call. Also range of shrieks and chuckles. Hints Most easily seen in the Grandes Fougères Park near Farino.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Barré, N., Chartendrault, V., Dutson, G., Ekstrom, J., Létocart, Y., Meresse, C., Meriot, J., Robinet, O., Spaggiari, J., Thiollay, J., Theuerkauf, J. & Legault, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Mahood, S., Stattersfield, A., Symes, A.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable as, although recent surveys indicate that there are likely to be over 5,000 mature individuals, the total population remains small, and is restricted to a single subpopulation which is suspected to have declined owing to habitat degradation.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Vulnerable (VU)
2009 Vulnerable (VU)
2008 Endangered (EN)
2004 Endangered (EN)
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Not Recognized (NR)
1988 Not Recognized (NR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Eunymphicus cornutus is endemic to New Caledonia (to France). It appears to have declined since the 1880s when it was reported from all forested areas, and it has considerably reduced its range on Mt Panié (now being restricted to the north-western part of the Panié massif [Ekstrom et al. 2000, J. Theuerkauf in litt. 2012]). Its numbers and trends were poorly known and until 2003-2006 there were only two independent population estimates of 1,000-3,000 birds (Ekstrom et al. 2000) and 720 pairs (N. Barré in litt. 1999) respectively. A recent study using distance sampling density data, records, and ecological niche modelling indicates that the species has a wider distribution and is more common than previously believed (Legault et al. in press). A rough estimate produced from this study indicates that the population may number 8,000-9,000 individuals (Legault et al. in press), roughly equating to at least 5,000 mature individuals (V. Chartendault in litt. 2007). During the 2003-2006 surveys, the species was recorded from the Ignambi massif in the north to the various massifs of the Grand Sud in the south. It was recorded on 57 % of the massifs in the northern province and 42 % of the massifs in the southern province. It is absent from the Ile des Pins. It is locally common in the centre part of the "chaîne" (Mé Maoya Massif, Moindou-Farino area, Poindimié-Ponérihouen area) (Chartendrault and Barre 2005, 2006, Legault et al. 2011). Numbers have remained stable in Rivière Bleue in the last 20 years (Y. Létocart in litt. 1999).

Countries occurrence:
New Caledonia
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 690
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 6-10
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Legault et al. (in press) estimated the population to number c.8,000-9,000 individuals, equivalent to 5,333-6,000 mature individuals, rounded here to 5,300-6,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  It is suspected to have undergone a slow decline over the past three generations (20 years) owing to habitat degradation and perhaps also predation by invasive species.

Current Population Trend: Increasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 5300-6000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is patchily distributed in rainforest to 1,500 m, but it also ranges in the valleys and into savannas, low-stature forest and scrub in maquis and high mountains (M. Thiollay in litt. 1999, Ekstrom et al. 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2002, Chartendrault and Barre 2005, 2006). Selects rainforest, particularly in valleys (Legault et al. 2011, Legault et al. in press). Pairs or small flocks (family flocks in April-June) feed in the canopy, largely on seeds and nuts (Ekstrom et al. 2000). Nests are sometimes on the ground, including under rocks and in fallen tree-trunks (Hannecart and Létocart 1983, O. Robinet in litt. 1999, Dutson 2011), and it has been recorded nesting in tree holes (J. M. Meriot verbally 2003). It may migrate seasonally to foraging grounds during the austral winter (June-September) (Chartendrault and Barre 2005, 2006). Birds have been seen crossing scrub between forest blocks, and it is not believed to be fragmented into distinct subpopulations (Y. Létocart in litt. 1999, Ekstrom et al. 2000). Birds have been seen in large groups, feeding in savannah (V. Chartendault in litt. 2007). and the species is seen every year in the valleys, feeding in close proximity to rural dwellings and in open areas. Nest sharing has been reported in this species (Theuerkauf et al. 2009).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 6.6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Populations may be declining through habitat degradation, both through logging and by introduced Rusa deer Rusa timorensis (Chartendrault and Barre 2005, 2006). Black rats occasionally prey on Horned Parakeet nest (Gula et al. 2010), although this has not been confirmed. Particularly wet (La Niña) years have been shown to reduce breeding success (J. Theuerkauf et al. in litt. 2011). There is little documented trapping or trade, and although there are captive birds on the island and birds are locally sought by collectors for trade (Pain et al. 2006), this seems to be marginal - there are no important local traditions in keeping pet birds (N. Barré in litt. 1999, Ekstrom et al. 2000, Chartendrault and Barre 2005, 2006) and since the species breeds in remote areas and its nests are hard to find, poaching is unlikely to be a major threat. There is occasional illegal hunting (C. Meresse in litt. 2009). The introduction of Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD) could be a threat to the species as may recently have been found in New Caledonian Parakeets C. saisseti (J. Theuerkauf in litt. 2012). 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II, and fully protected by New Caledonian law. There are significant populations in Rivière Bleue and Reserve Speciale de Faune et de Flore de la Nodela (Ekstrom et al. 2000). Since 2005 the Loro Parque Fundación has been supporting a long-term study on the species's ecology and threats (Theuerkauf and Rouys 2008).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey other forest blocks within its extent of occurrence and investigate dispersal between isolated forest blocks (Ekstrom et al. 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2002). Investigate the breeding biology to identify any limiting factors such as nest failures or rat predation (Ekstrom et al. 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2002). Research ecological dependence on certain tree species for nesting or feeding (Ekstrom et al. 2000, Ekstrom et al. 2002). Continue to monitor numbers in Rivière Bleue and start a monitoring programme in Nodela (Ekstrom et al. 2000, J. Ekstrom in litt. 2003). Monitor for any evidence of trapping and trade (Y. Létocart in litt. 1999, O. Robinet in litt. 1999, Ekstrom et al. 2000). Consider an Action Plan similar to that of E. uvaeensis (N. Barré in litt. 1999, Y. Létocart in litt. 1999, O. Robinet in litt. 1999, Ekstrom et al. 2000). Initiate control measures against introduced predators. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status and establish captive-breeding populations for future population supplementation/reintroductions.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Eunymphicus cornutus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22685185A48040198. . Downloaded on 02 December 2015.
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