Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Tanygnathus lucionensis
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Common Name(s):
English Blue-naped Parrot
Spanish Loro Nuquiazul
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened because there are some indications that it has a moderately small, fragmented population, and it may be undergoing a continuing decline owing to trapping and forest loss. However, little is currently known about the population size and structure, and threats to this species. Further information is needed to improve the accuracy of this assessment.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1996 Endangered (EN)
1994 Endangered (EN)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Tanygnathus lucionensis is confined to the Philippines, where there are records from at least 45 islands, plus the Talaud Islands, Indonesia, and islands off north-east Borneo belonging to Malaysia (Collar et al. 1999). It was common on most islands in the Philippines a century or less ago, but has suffered declines since on such a scale that it is now rare or extinct on many islands. However, while not a small-island specialist it does survive in small pockets of habitat on the smaller islands, so that its status overall is difficult to assess. Moreover, it is still fairly numerous in some areas of Palawan and on Tawitawi, and high numbers persist in a large tract of forest on Talaud. The total population was provisionally estimated to be below 10,000 individuals in 1993 (Lambert et al. 1993).

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 291000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Lambert et al. (1993) estimated a maximum of 10,000 individuals, and so the population size is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals here. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be in decline owing to trapping for the cagebird trade and habitat degradation from agricultural expansion and logging pressures.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1500-7000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is a bird of closed and open forest formations, including second growth, coconut plantations, banana patches and mangrove, chiefly in lowland and coastal areas, up to 1,000 m. It is usually found in flocks of up to 12 individuals which roost communally and make regular dawn and dusk flights between feeding and roosting areas. It feeds in fruiting trees on nuts, fruits, berries and also on grain in other habitats. Nesting takes place in a hole in a tree in April-June.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.9
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It has declined through trapping (for both domestic and international trade) and habitat loss owing to agricultural expansion and logging pressure.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It occurs in several national parks within the Philippines: Bataan, Quezon and Minalungaw, and is relatively common within St Paul's Subterranean River National Park, Palawan.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Determine the impact of trade on the species's population. Revise its global population estimate. Estimate rates of decline based upon rates of deforestation within its range. Effectively protect significant areas of tall forest with suitable nesting trees at key sites throughout it range, in both strictly protected areas and community led multiple use areas.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Tanygnathus lucionensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22685009A37966181. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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