|Scientific Name:||Charmosyna amabilis|
|Species Authority:||(Ramsay, 1875)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.|
|Identification information:||18 cm. Green lorikeet with fluttering flight. Entirely green but for red cheeks, throat and thighs. Red throat bordered with yellow. Mustard-yellow undertail and tail tips. Sexes similar, immature birds duller. Similar spp. Easily confused with Collared Lory Phigys solitarius which is considerably larger and has black cap and red on the back. Voice High-pitched squeaks uttered whilst feeding or in flight. Hints Search any flowering tree in remote forest areas, such as Mt Tomaniivi on Viti Levu.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered C2a(i,ii);D ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Allport, G., Dutson, G., Hayman, P., Kretzschmar, J., Masibalavu, V., O'Brien, M. & Watling, D.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., O'Brien, A., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Temple, H.|
This species qualifies as Critically Endangered because the lack of recent records, despite considerable survey effort, suggests it has a tiny population which is presumably continuing to decline as a result of predation from introduced rats and loss of habitat.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Charmosyna amabilis occurs on the islands of Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni and Ovalau, Fiji. It has always been regarded as a rare species although 10 specimens were collected during a one-month visit in 1925 (Watling 2000). It appears to be patchily distributed, with observations becoming scarcer within recent years (J. S. Kretzschmar in litt. 2000, V. Masibalavu in litt. 2012). The last record by observers familiar with this species was in 1993, but one sighting at Mt Tomaniivi (=Mt Victoria) on Viti Levu in 2001 is supported by detailed field notes (P. Hayman in litt. 2004). Nearly all recent records on Viti Levu have been in the Mt Tomaniivi area (Watling 2000), but two birds were seen in the Nausori Highlands in 1998 (G. Allport in litt. 2000). However, a survey on Viti Levu in 2001-2002 searched for the lorikeet in the central highlands, where it has been seen most frequently since the 1970s. During 49 days in the field no birds were seen or calls heard (Swinnerton and Maljkovic 2002). The species has also not been sighted during continuing surveys in the highlands of Viti Levu (Monasavu/Nadarivatu) and Sovi Basin (V. Masibalavu in litt. 2012). There are unconfirmed records from the 1980s and 1990s from lowland areas of Ovalau, upland Taveuni and from the Natewa peninsula on Vanua Levu (Watling 2000). However, a second series of surveys in 2003 also failed to find any birds, suggesting marked declines have occurred (G. Dutson in litt. 2003). Given the failure of further surveys to detect this species, it appears to be extremely rare, and its total population may number less than 50 birds (G. Dutson in litt. 2005).|
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||16600|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Number of Locations:||2-5|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||120|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Two detailed surveys in 2001-2002 and 2003 failed to find any birds at all, so the remaining population is likely to be very small (fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals) indeed (G. Dutson in litt. 2005).
Trend Justification: Ongoing logging and road construction causes habitat loss and is likely to increase rat populations, both of which may lead to population declines. The species is apparently harder to find now than it was formerly.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found in mature forests and may be reliant on old-growth forest above 500 m (Swinnerton and Maljkovic 2002). However, its altitudinal restriction on Viti Levu and Vanua Levu is probably artificial, reflecting the absence of 'good' forest, except at higher elevations (D. Watling in litt. 2000, Swinnerton and Maljkovic 2002). On Ovalau, it has been observed in mangroves (J. S. Kretzschmar in litt. 2000). It is usually found in small flocks high in the canopy feeding on nectar and pollen from flowering trees, and probably roams seasonally in search of this food supply (Watling 1982, Clunie 1984). Its breeding ecology is unknown (Watling 1982).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||3.7|
Lowland and hill forest is slowly being cleared in much of Fiji. However, the rarity and assumed decline of this species is probably largely the result of predation by introduced mammals, especially black rat Rattus rattus, as is the case with the closely-related New Caledonian Lorikeet C. diadema, which could be extinct owing to predation by rats. Ongoing increases in logging and expansion of the road network, especially around the high-altitude areas of Monasavu and Serua in Viti Levu, are likely to be increasing rat density (Watling 2000, G. Dutson in litt. 2005). The introduced Indian brown mongoose Herpestes fuscus is also present in the species's range and may pose a threat (V. Masibalavu in litt. 2012). Agricultural expansion is encroaching on primary forest in Taveuni. Having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its range, this species is also potentially susceptible to climate change (BirdLife International unpublished data).
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It is protected under Fijian law. On Viti Levu, it occurs within the Tomaniivi Nature Reserve, but this is not large enough to maintain a resident population and, although the establishment of the proposed Wabu extension would make a reserve of appropriate size, it would not provide any better protection against rats if the reserve remains unmanaged (D. Watling in litt. 2000). On Taveuni, the combination of the Ravilevu Nature Reserve and the Bouma National Heritage Park provides an area of adequate size for its conservation but the lorikeet remains very rare (D. Watling in litt. 2000). Two management plans have been prepared for the species and discussions on their implementation are ongoing. In 2010, there were plans to facilitate increased observer awareness in the communities local to the Tomaniivi IBA, where local people report seeing the species occasionally, with the hope that the details of any further sightings will be formally recorded (M. O'Brien in litt. 2010). Conservation Actions Proposed
On Viti Levu, repeat forest surveys around Tomaniivi and assess threats, in particular the degree to which rats have contributed to its decline and what threat they currently pose to remaining populations (SPREP 2000, G. Dutson in litt. 2005). If rats are identified as a major threat to a tiny remnant population considerations should be made for establishing a 'safe' population either in captivity or an appropriate rat-free island. Develop local expertise in survey methodology to enable monitoring (SPREP 2000). Identify further suitable areas for the conservation of this species (SPREP 2000). Survey other islands, notably montane Taveuni (G. Dutson in litt. 2005). Conduct surveys between the peak vunga and drala flowering season, between August and October (Swinnerton and Maljkovic 2002, G. Dutson in litt. 2005).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Charmosyna amabilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22684693A38280061. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22684693A38280061.en . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.|
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