Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Cuculiformes Cuculidae

Scientific Name: Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus
Species Authority: (Pennant, 1769)
Common Name(s):
English Red-faced Malkoha
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Identification information: 46 cm. Unmistakable malkoha with extensive red facial skin and whitish underparts, with black lower throat and upper breast. Juveniles are duller with more restricted and duller red facial skin. Voice Occasional short, yelping whistles, low kra and hollow kok.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): de Silva Wijeyeratne, G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Crosby, M., Derhé, M., Peet, N.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small, declining population as a result of loss and degradation of its forest habitat.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus is endemic to Sri Lanka, primarily occurring in the wet zone of the south-west of the island and locally in the dry zone. The majority of records come from Wasgomua, Yala, Udawalawa, Galoya and Lahugala forests (Kaluthota 2007). There are unconfirmed records from Tamil Nadu, India. Historical records suggest it was widespread at the end of the 19th century, but its population has since declined, become increasingly fragmented and numbers are now no more than a few thousand individuals, perhaps as low as several hundred.

Countries occurrence:
Sri Lanka
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 36600
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1540
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population has been considered unlikely to number more than a few thousand individuals based on available records and survey results, and so it is retained in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals. A recent estimate though suggests the population size may now be no greater than several hundred individuals.

Trend Justification:  The species is believed to be declining, owing to the on-going loss of forest habitat within its range.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is mainly confined to undisturbed, tall, humid lowland forest with dense, tangled undergrowth, although there are scattered populations in dry zone riverine forest. Most records are from below 920 m, although it has been recorded up to 1,540 m. It forages solitarily or frequently in mixed-species flocks, usually in the canopy. Its diet consists primarily of invertebrates (Salgado 2006), but also includes fruit and berries. Breeding has been recorded from January-May, but it may also breed from August-September. Nests are placed on high bushes in the dense forest undergrowth. It may make seasonal altitudinal movements.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.2
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is the extensive clearance and degradation of forests, particularly in the wet zone, through logging, fuelwood collection, conversion to agriculture and tree plantations, gem mining, settlement and fire. As a primarily canopy-dwelling species, it has been particularly badly affected by selective logging. Some protected forests continue to be degraded and suffer further fragmentation. Historically, hunting was possibly a threat but it is unlikely to be a serious problem today.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is legally protected in Sri Lanka. A moratorium was passed in 1990 to protect wet zone forests from logging, but encroachment continues. It occurs in several national parks and forest reserves, most notably Sinharaja National Heritage Wilderness Area, Gal-Oya National Park, Senanayake Samudra Sanctuary, Uda Walawe National Park and Peak Wilderness Sanctuary. A survey of the biodiversity of 200 forest sites was carried out in 1991-1996.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct a comprehensive survey in order to produce management recommendations for this species in conservation forests and other protected areas. Encourage protection of remaining important areas of forest holding this and other threatened species, including proposals to designate conservation forests, and ensure their effective management. Research its ecology, particularly its habitat requirements and possible seasonal movements. Maintain the current ban on the logging of wet zone forests. Promote programmes to create awareness of the value of biological resources amongst local communities.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22684123A40074590. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided