||Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus (Pennant, 1769)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||46 cm. Unmistakable malkoha with extensive red facial skin and whitish underparts, with black lower throat and upper breast. Juveniles are duller with more restricted and duller red facial skin. Voice Occasional short, yelping whistles, low kra and hollow kok.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||de Silva Wijeyeratne, G.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Crosby, M., Derhé, M., Peet, N.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small, declining population as a result of loss and degradation of its forest habitat.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus is endemic to Sri Lanka, primarily occurring in the wet zone of the south-west of the island and locally in the dry zone. The majority of records come from Wasgomua, Yala, Udawalawa, Galoya and Lahugala forests (Kaluthota 2007). There are unconfirmed records from Tamil Nadu, India. Historical records suggest it was widespread at the end of the 19th century, but its population has since declined, become increasingly fragmented and numbers are now no more than a few thousand individuals, perhaps as low as several hundred. |
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||44300|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1540|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population has been considered unlikely to number more than a few thousand individuals based on available records and survey results, and so it is retained in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals. A recent estimate though suggests the population size may now be no greater than several hundred individuals. |
Trend Justification: The species is believed to be declining, owing to the on-going loss of forest habitat within its range.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|