Todiramphus farquhari 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Coraciiformes Alcedinidae

Scientific Name: Todiramphus farquhari (Sharpe, 1899)
Common Name(s):
English Vanuatu Kingfisher, Vanuatu Kingfisher
Todirhamphus farquhari farquhari Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Todirhamphus farquhari farquhari Collar et al. (1994)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 19 cm. Medium-sized, blue-black, chestnut-and-white kingfisher. Similar to many congeners. Upperparts are iridescent deep purple-blue with clear white collar and loral spot. Underparts are largely orange-rufous. Similar spp. White-collared Kingfisher T. chloris found in more open habitats and larger and pale turquoise-blue above with variable orange or rufous on supercilium, flanks and sometimes belly. Voice Long, accelerating series of chirps, repeated for more than a minute. Hints Best seen by stalking calling birds.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Barré, N., Diamond, J., Dutson, G., Maturin, S. & Totterman, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Dutson, G., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., Stattersfield, A. & Symes, A.
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it has a moderately small population which is likely to be declining through forest loss and degradation. Rates of forest loss have been lower than predicted, and the species appears moderately tolerant of habitat degradation.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Todiramphus farquhari is endemic to Espiritu Santo, Malo, Aore and Malakula in Vanuatu. It was reported to be fairly widely distributed on all these islands in 2004-2005 (N. Barre in litt. 2007, S. Totterman in litt. 2007). On Santo, the population density was estimated at c.7-17 calling birds per km2 at Loru Protected Area (Bowen 1997), and the species is still considered "fairly common in suitable habitat" (Dutson 2011), but birds appear to be less common at Big Bay Protected Area and perhaps elsewhere (G. Dutson pers. obs. 1998). Though it is not hard to find in suitable habitat, numbers are believed to have declined on the east coast of Santo owing to habitat loss (S. Totterman in litt. 2007).

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:12500
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number at least 10,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 6,700 mature individuals (N. Barré in litt. 2008).

Trend Justification:  Although the species appears moderately tolerant of habitat degradation it is nevertheless suspected to have undergone moderate declines owing to habitat loss.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:6700Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It replaces T. chloris in "dark bush" - the densest parts of closed-canopy forest (Medway and Marshall 1975, Bregulla 1992, S. Totterman in litt. 2007), however it also occurs in other forest types, such as dry forest (S. Totterman in litt. 2007). It is most common in primary evergreen rainforest, from sea-level to at least 800 m, and it has been considered more common in the hills (Bregulla 1992, G. Dutson pers. obs. 1998, Kratter et al. 2006). It appears to be able to tolerate even fairly open secondary and logged forest and forest patches (S. Totterman in litt. 2007). It feeds on lizards and insects from a perch low in the forest and nests in arboreal termite nests (Bregulla 1992).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):4.8
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): On Santo, large areas of logged forest have been converted into cattle pasture, and on Malakula and Malo the situation is probably similar. Being an understorey species, it is likely to be affected by habitat degradation of primary and logged forest by feral cattle and pigs (Bregulla 1992, S. Maturin in litt. 1994, G. Dutson pers. obs. 1998).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It is protected under Vanuatu law. It occurs in the two protected areas on Santo: Big Bay and Loru (Bowen 1997, G. Dutson pers. obs. 1998).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey Malo and Malakula. Survey Santo to ascertain its distribution and abundance. Determine habitat and altitudinal requirements. Determine tolerance of logged forest. Ascertain extent of remaining closed-canopy lowland forest. Monitor numbers at Loru and Big Bay protected areas through annual aural surveys. Assess effects of cattle and pig browsing by monitoring in a large fenced-off sector of Loru Protected Area. Advocate creation of forest reserves on each major island.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Todiramphus farquhari. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22683347A92984640. . Downloaded on 22 November 2017.
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