|Scientific Name:||Alcedo euryzona|
|Species Authority:||Temminck, 1830|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Aik, Y., Davison, G., Cox, B. & van Balen, B.|
|Facilitator/s:||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.|
This kingfisher is largely restricted to rivers in lowland forest and, as such, is suspected to be undergoing a rapid and continuing population decline as a result of significant losses in the extent of this habitat throughout its range.
Alcedo euryzona ranges from southern Myanmar (Tenasserim), through peninsular Thailand to Malaysia (including Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo), Brunei, Kalimantan, Sumatra and Java (where apparently the only record since the 1930s is a report of one seen in Gunung Halimun National Park in June 2009 [B. Cox in litt. 2009]) (Indonesia) (BirdLife International 2001). It is generally thinly distributed, being locally fairly common in Peninsular Malaysia and on Borneo, rare in Myanmar and Java (with apparently no records for over 70 years), and uncommon in Thailand and Sumatra. It may be under-recorded owing to its shy behaviour and often remote habitat (B. van Balen in litt. 2012).
Native:Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is generally sedentary on rocky or slow-flowing streams and larger rivers running through forest (usually humid evergreen, but also back-mangroves and mixed dipterocarp-dominated forest), most commonly in the lowlands, but ascending locally to at least 1,250 m (820 in Peninsular Malaysia). It is predominantly piscivorous, also consuming crustaceans, insects and small reptiles. Breeding has been recorded in February-June.|
|Major Threat(s):||Huge areas of lowland forest were removed from the range of this species during the 20th century. For example, rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), owing to a variety of factors, including the escalation of illegal logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998). A similar scenario (or indeed worse in the case of Thailand and Java) faces all other range states and islands. Its occupation of hill streams, however, provides some hope that it will survive in this relatively secure habitat.|
Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded within various protected areas within its range, including Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Gunung Palung and Kutai National Parks, Kalimantan, Similajau National Park, Sarawak, Endau-Rompin and Taman Negara National Parks, Malaysia, and was recently reported from Gunung Halimun National Park, Java (B. Cox in litt. 2009). Conservation Actions Proposed
Address the species as a key target during surveys, and research its range and ecological requirements, perhaps targeting the species through mist-netting above forest streams (B. van Balen in litt. 2012). Formulate a management strategy for this species and a suite of other Sundaic birds largely reliant on lowland forest. Lobby for effective management of existing protected areas in the Sundaic region and for the expansion of the protected area network.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Alcedo euryzona. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 March 2014.|
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