|Scientific Name:||Bucephala albeola|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Bermuda; Canada; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Mexico; Puerto Rico; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; United States
Vagrant:Bahamas; Finland; France; Greenland; Iceland; Jamaica; Japan; Netherlands; Portugal; Russian Federation; Slovakia; Spain; United Kingdom; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Present - origin uncertain:Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Curaçao; Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number > c.1,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while the population in Japan has been estimated at <c.50 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009).|
Trend Justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (160% increase over 40 years, equating to a 27% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Bucephala albeola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22680462A92863192.Downloaded on 23 August 2017.|
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