||Polysticta stelleri (Pallas, 1769)
||Eider chico, Eider de Steller
||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
||43-47 cm. Smallish marine duck with squarish head and angular bill; breeding plumage male unmistakable (in eclipse blackish with white secondary coverts); 1st winter male brown with faint suggestion of male head markings - blackish throat and collar; female red-brown with blue tertials (except 1st winter when brown) and whitish inner webs. Most female-type plumages show pale eye ring. Flight fast with rapid beats; male shows white forewing and trailing edge, female has thin white wing bar and trailing edge. Similar spp. Best told from other Eiders in non adult male plumage by shape and size supported by various plumage features described above. Hints Occurs in tight flocks which dive simultaneously, search amongst other eider species away from main range.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU27 regional assessment: Endangered (EN)
In Europe, although this species may have a small range it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern in Europe.
In the EU27 the species is undergoing rapid declines, and it is therefore classified as Endangered (C1), and there is not considered to be significant potential for rescue from outside the EU27, so the final category is unchanged.
|Population:||The minimum European population in winter is estimated at 30,800-41,200 individuals, which equates to 20,500-27,500 mature individuals. There also exists a marginal breeding population in Europe estimated at 5-50 pairs, which equates to 10-100 mature individuals. The species occurs in the EU27 only in winter and the minimum population in the EU27 is estimated at 820-2,200 individuals, which equates to 550-1,500 mature individuals. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe the population size in winter is estimated to be stable. In the EU27 the population size in winter is estimated to be decreasing by 25% or more in 10.9 years (one generation). For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||20500-27500,23500||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|