||Salvadorina waigiuensis Rothschild & Hartert, 1894
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||43 cm. Small duck of montane rivers and lakes. Dark brown head. Body barred and spotted dark brown and off-white. Yellow bill. Orange legs. Similar spp. None of the many species of duck recorded in New Guinea have a yellow bill and uniform chocolate head or a barred body. Whistling-ducks, usually found in the lowlands, combine rather plain heads with pale spots or stripes on the flanks and Australian White-eyed Duck Aythya australis has uniformly plain brown plumage. Voice Various calls only given in courtship. Hints Elusive and rather unpredictable at all known sites.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Beehler, B., Bishop, K., Hornbuckle, J., Mack, A., Whitney, B. & Dutson, G.
||Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Mahood, S., North, A., O'Brien, A. & Pilgrim, J.
This species is widespread, from the low foothills to the highest alpine tarns; but it appears to have a small population size because of its specialised habitat requirements. It is likley to be slowly declining through hunting and habitat degradation and therefore qualifies as Vulnerable, although further information may show that it it has a larger population size and is less threatened than currently thought.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2007 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||Salvadorina waigiuensis is endemic to the mountains of New Guinea (Papua, formerly Irian Jaya, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). There are records at 70 m in the Lakekamu Basin, but it rare and local at lower altitudes. It occurs across the island in suitable montane habitat and was recorded at 4,300 m on five occasions in 2010 (Sam and Koane 2013). The population has been variously estimated to be 2,500-20,000 birds and stable or slowly declining (Callaghan and Green 1993). The species has been observed using an ephemeral lake at 1650 m in the Foja Mts of western New Guinea (2005, 2008) (B. Beehler in litt. 2012), indicating that it can cross expanses of closed forest in search of suitable habitat. |
Indonesia; Papua New Guinea
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||716000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||600|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||4100|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The total population is estimated to number 2,500-20,000 individuals,and is thus best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. In reality, the population is likely to be higher.|
Trend Justification: Some local extinctions have been recorded and the species as a whole is suspected to be declining at a slow rate, owing to hunting, predation by dogs and habitat degradation (Coates 1985, Callaghan and Green 1993).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||2500-9999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Although recorded from 70-4,300 m, this duck is uncommon below 600 m and is most common at the highest altitudes (Coates 1985, Beehler et al. 1986, Callaghan and Green 1993, J. Hornbuckle in litt 1999, Beehler and Pratt 2016). It breeds beside fast-flowing rivers and streams, and alpine lakes, and has also been recorded on slow-flowing rivers (Coates 1985, Callaghan and Green 1993). It is not sociable, and one rarely encounters anything beside single adults or pairs (B. Beehler in litt. 2007, Pratt & Beehler 2015). Breeding territories are variable in size owing to local conditions, for instance pairs have been found to occupy 1,600 m of stream on the Baiyer River (Kear 1975) but only 160 m on the Ok Menga River (Bell 1969). The species uses small tributary streams as well as main river channels, a factor which may contribute to its perceived rarity. It lays clutches of two to four eggs alongside rivers or lakes in the dry season (Kear 1975). It is omnivorous, feeding on aquatic invertebrates, tadpoles and plants by dabbling and diving (Kear 1975, Coates 1985, Pratt & Beehler 2015). |
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||7|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|