Salvadorina waigiuensis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Anseriformes Anatidae

Scientific Name: Salvadorina waigiuensis
Species Authority: Rothschild & Hartert, 1894
Common Name(s):
English Salvadori's Teal
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes:

Identification information: 43 cm. Small duck of montane rivers and lakes. Dark brown head. Body barred and spotted dark brown and off-white. Yellow bill. Orange legs. Similar spp. None of the many species of duck recorded in New Guinea have a yellow bill and uniform chocolate head or a barred body. Whistling-ducks, usually found in the lowlands, combine rather plain heads with pale spots or stripes on the flanks and Australian White-eyed Duck Aythya australis has uniformly plain brown plumage. Voice Various calls only given in courtship. Hints Elusive and rather unpredictable at all known sites.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Beehler, B., Bishop, K., Hornbuckle, J., Mack, A., Whitney, B. & Dutson, G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A. & Pilgrim, J.
This species is widespread, from the low foothills to the highest alpine tarns; nonetheless, it persists in small numbers wherever it occurs, and its specialized habitat requirements ensure that its global population will remain small. It may be declining through hunting and habitat degradation and therefore qualifies as Vulnerable, although further information may show that it is less threatened than currently thought.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2007 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Salvadorina waigiuensis is endemic to the mountains of New Guinea (Papua, formerly Irian Jaya, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). It is rare and local at lower altitudes. There are records at 70m in the Lakekamu Basin, but it occurs across the island in suitable montane habitat. There are recent records from few locations, a consequence of the inaccessibility of most of its range and the species's unobtrusive, shy and perhaps nocturnal habits (Coates 1985, Beehler et al. 1986, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1994, J. Hornbuckle in litt 1999). The population has been variously estimated to be 2,500-20,000 birds and stable or slowly declining (Callaghan in prep., Callaghan and Green 1993). More recently (2005, 2008) the species was observed using an ephemeral lake at 1650 m in the Foja Mts of western New Guinea (B. Beehler in litt. 2012). This indicates that its movements are quite widespread and that it can cross expanses of closed forest in search of ideal habitat.

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia; Papua New Guinea
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 234000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 600
Upper elevation limit (metres): 4100
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The total population is estimated to number 2,500-20,000 individuals,and is thus best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  Some local extinctions have been recorded and the species as a whole is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate, owing to hunting, predation by dogs and habitat degradation (Coates 1985, Callaghan and Green 1993).
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Although recorded from 70-4,100m, this duck is uncommon below 600m and most common at the highest altitudes (Coates 1985, Beehler et al. 1986, Callaghan and Green 1993, J. Hornbuckle in litt 1999). It breeds beside fast-flowing rivers and streams, and alpine lakes, and has also been recorded on slow-flowing rivers (Coates 1985, Callaghan and Green 1993). It is not sociable, and one rarely encounters anything beside single adults or pairs (B. Beehler in litt. 2007). Breeding territories are variable in size owing to local conditions, for instance pairs have been found to occupy 1,600 m of stream on the Baiyer River (Kear 1975) but only 160m on the Ok Menga River (Bell 1969). The species uses small tributary streams as well as main river channels, a factor which may contribute to its perceived rarity. It lays clutches of two to four eggs alongside rivers or lakes in the dry season (Kear 1975). It is omnivorous, feeding by dabbling and diving (Kear 1975, Coates 1985).

Systems: Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 7
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Some local extirpations and declines have been attributed to hunting (Bishop 1987, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1994), predation by dogs, and habitat degradation, largely through increasing human pressure and siltation, especially from hydroelectric projects, mining and logging (Murray 1988, A. Mack in litt 1999, Callaghan in prep.), but these have only impacted small areas (B. Whitney in litt. 2000). The stocking of alpine rivers with exotic trout species has been suggested as a potential risk to food sources (Kear 1975, Callaghan and Green 1993).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
This species is protected by law in Papua New Guinea (Callaghan and Green 1993). It is known to be fairly common within the Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area where it has been a focus of specific study (Straus 2006).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess best survey techniques. Survey rivers in areas with varying human population pressure. Assess hunting pressure through discussion with local hunters. Survey rivers upstream and downstream of hydroelectric, mining and logging activities. Survey rivers with high numbers of trout. Research ecology on both lakes and rivers. Address hunting through public awareness programmes.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Salvadorina waigiuensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22680127A38280414. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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