|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Cuervo, A., Salaman, P., Sharpe, C J, Diaz-Jaramillo, C., Stiles, F., Cortés, O., Ruiz, C. & Donegan, T.
||Benstead, P., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Pilgrim, J., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A. & Ashpole, J
This species qualifies as Near Threatened because it has a moderately small and declining population; it almost meets the requirements for listing as threatened under criterion C2a(i).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2015 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2012 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2008 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2006 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2004 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||This species occurs in north-west Venezuela (around Lago Maracaibo in Zuila, Mérida and Trujillo) (Meyer de Schauensee and Phelps 1978) and north Colombia (from the lower Atrato valley east to the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta and the Cesar valley, and south in the middle Magdalena valley to south Bolívar) (Hilty and Brown 1986). The upper Cauca valley holds a tiny, isolated and apparently declining population (Naranjo 1986). Numbers had been estimated at c.2,000 individuals in Venezuela but are now thought to be <1,000, possibly as small as the low hundreds (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2015). The total population has been estimated at 3,000-5,000 individuals (Callaghan in prep.). However, this may under-estimate the Colombian population, with c.5,000 or more birds perhaps a more accurate guess (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995). The global population is estimated to be 2,500-9,999 individuals.|
Colombia; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||297000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1200|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population estimate of 2,500-9,999 individuals is derived from P. G. W. Salaman in litt. (1999). This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals. The population in Venezuela has been recently estimated at approximately <1,000 individuals (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2015).|
Trend Justification: A slow and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss and possibly egg-collecting and hunting.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||1500-7000||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
Conservation and Research Actions Underway
It occurs in Salamanca National Park and Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta Flora and Fauna Sanctuary, Magdalena, Colombia, but these areas have now lost sizeable areas of habitat (Callaghan in prep., Wege and Long 1995). Other less damaged protected areas include Los Katios National Park, Chocó, Colombia (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999) and Ciénagas de Juan Manuel, Aguas Blancas y Aguas Negras Faunal Reserve, Zulia, Venezuela (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995, C. J. Sharpe, J. P. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999).
Conservation and Research Actions Proposed
Census and monitor populations to assess the global population and demographic trends and to refine the distribution and locate strongholds (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, C. J. Sharpe, J. P. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999). Investigate its ecology, threats and conservation requirements (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995, C. J. Sharpe, J. P. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999). Improve the management of protected areas that are suffering encroachment and degradation. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status. Control pollution in the species's habitats. Raise awareness of the species and its status in an effort to reduce persecution.