||Crossoptilon mantchuricum Swinhoe, 1863
||Brown Eared-pheasant, Brown Eared Pheasant, Brown Eared-Pheasant, Manchurian Eared-pheasant
||Faisán Orejudo de Manchuria, Faisán Orejudo Pardo
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||96-100 cm. Brown-and-white pheasant with prominent white cheek tufts extending from bill base. Mainly darkish brown body plumage with white lower back, rump and uppertail-coverts, and longish, filamentous white tail with broad, dark tips. Bare red facial skin and legs. Female usually slightly smaller and lacks tarsus spurs. Voice Utters high-pitched, raucous calls and call transliterated "Trip-c-r-r-r-r-r-ah!" of variable length (sometimes abrupt, occasionally drawn out for c.60 seconds), increasing in pitch and volume.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||He, F. & Zhang, Z.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Keane, A., Taylor, J.
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it may have a small population, and although the populations within protected areas appear to be stable, elsewhere remaining unprotected and isolated populations are declining (potentially rapidly) through on-going habitat loss and disturbance.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2013 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Crossoptilon mantchuricum is endemic to northern central China, where it is now confined to scattered localities in the Luliang Shan of western Shanxi, and the mountains of north-western Hebei, towards western Beijing, and also found in 1998 in a small area in central-eastern Shaanxi (no fewer than 1,500 individuals in the counties of Yichuan, Huanglong and Hancheng), which may represent an isolated population (He Fenqi in litt. 2012). Its population within protected areas was recently estimated at c.5,000 birds, but on the basis of potential habitat available for this species both inside and outside protected areas, and assuming the mean population density within protected areas is twice that in unprotected areas, it has been tentatively estimated to number up to c.17,000 birds. Recent evidence from the Forest Department of Hebei Province has enlarged the species known range, confirming that it also occurs in Laiyuan and Laishui counties, and that it may be more numerous than previously thought (Zhang Zhengwang 2006).|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||199000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||1100|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.5,000-17,000 individuals, equivalent to c.3,300-11,000 mature individuals (Li Xiangtao and Liu Rusan 1993; Zhang Zhengwang 1998b; Zhang Zhengwang (verbally) 1999). The population in China has been estimated at <c.100 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).|
Trend Justification: The species is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate, owing to the continuing loss and fragmentation of its habitat, particularly outside of protected areas, and also from reduced breeding success following human disturbance.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||3300-11000||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||1-89|