Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Galliformes Phasianidae

Scientific Name: Coturnix japonica
Species Authority: Temminck & Schlegel, 1849
Common Name(s):
English Japanese Quail
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Okuyama, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline, potentially owing to hunting and shifts in agriculture. Research is urgently required to establish population numbers, trends, and to assess and mitigate the threats to the species.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2010 Near Threatened (NT)
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Coturnix japonica breeds in eastern Asia, including northern Mongolia, Sakhalin Island and the Baikal and Vitim regions of Russia, north-eastern China, Japan, North Korea and South Korea. Some populations in Japan are resident, but most birds migrate south, wintering in southern China, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, Bhutan and north-eastern India (del Hoyo et al. 1994). There are also introduced populations in Italy and Hawaii (USA). No reliable population estimate exists, and although the species was previously considered to be fairly common in China (del Hoyo et al. 1994), declines appear to have occurred in Laos (Duckworth 2009) and Japan (Okuyama 2004, H. Nagata in litt. 2009), and there are fears that the species has undergone a significant decline overall (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Duckworth 2009).

Countries occurrence:
Bhutan; China; India; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Mongolia; Myanmar; Russian Federation; Thailand; Viet Nam
Italy; Réunion; United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Cambodia; Philippines
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 3200000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but the species was has been reported to be fairly common (del Hoyo et al. 1994; Fuller et al. 2000). However, owing to recent suspected declines, the species is likely to be less common than previously thought. National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and <c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  This species may have undergone a decline of over 80% between 1973 and 2002 (H. Nagata in litt. 2009). Declines also appear to have occurred in Laos (Duckworth 2009), and although reliable population data are lacking, the species is suspected to have undergone a decline of 20-29% over the past 10 years (three generations).

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour This species is an annual migrant, although some populations in Japan are resident (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Egg-laying occurs from late April to early August in Russia, and late May to August in Japan. Clutch size is varied, with larger clutches in Russia (nine to ten) than in Japan (five to eight). The female is the sole incubator of the eggs (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Habitat Little is known about the preferred habitat of this species, although it is thought to prefer open habitats such as meadows, steppes, and dry mountain slopes near water. It has also been recorded in grassland and cultivated land (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet Its diet is thought to include a wide variety of plant matter, and it will also take terrestrial invertebrates in summer (del Hoyo et al. 1994).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 2.8
Movement patterns: Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Specific threats to the species are unknown, although it may be threatened by agricultural change in Asia (Duckworth 2009). Hunting is a threat in Japan (Okuyama 2004), and is likely to be a threat elsewhere in its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
There are plans to introduce a ban on the hunting of the species in Japan (M. Okuyama in litt. 2010).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Obtain an up-to-date population estimate. Develop a monitoring scheme to establish population trends. Identify and assess the impacts of known and potential threats throughout its range.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Coturnix japonica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22678949A37824013. . Downloaded on 14 October 2015.
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