|Scientific Name:||Alectoris barbara (Reichenow, 1896)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
At both European and EU27 scales, although this species may have a small range, it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (30% decline over ten years or three generations).
For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern within both Europe and the EU27.
Native:Gibraltar; Italy; Spain
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 7,500-20,000 pairs, which equates to 15,000-40,100 mature individuals. The entire population is found in the EU27. For details of national estimates, see the supplementary material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe and the EU27 the population size trend is unknown. For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is found in predominantly dry, open country with scrubby cover (Tucker and Heath 1994). It uses steep slopes, rocky areas and arid hillsides, stony terraces, unimproved agricultural land, open or degraded maquis and woodland, including open pine forest (Tucker and Heath 1994, McGowan and Kirwan 2013). The species lays between March and May although eggs have been reported in December on the Canary Islands (Clark 2006, McGowan and Kirwan 2013). It can lay six to twenty seven eggs (Znari 1998). It breeds earlier in the lowlands than in the mountains. In very dry years it may not breed at all in semi-arid habitats (McGowan and Kirwan 2013). The nest is a depression in the ground which is usually lined and sheltered by long grass, bushes or boulders (Madge and McGowan 2002, Mocci Demartis and Massoli-Novelli 1978). It has a varied diet but predominantly feeds on leaves, shoots, fruits and seeds of a wide range of grasses and herbs with insects such as ants forming an important supplement. The species is mainly sedentary (McGowan and Kirwan 2013).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||3.9|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threat in Europe is hunting. In Sardinia regulatory measures exist but are not enforced due to a sufficient number of wardens. In the Canary Islands the remaining population is restocked annually to enable sport hunting (McGowan and Kirwan 2013), however this increases the risk if introducing disease and genetic contamination. Other threats are intensive use of pesticides, outbreaks of fire and the abandonment of cultivated land (Tucker and Heath 1994).|
Conservation Actions Underway
EU Birds Directive Annex I, II and III. Mace Lande: Safe. The reinforcing of populations continues, such as in the Canaries where local populations are restocked annually to accommodate sport hunting. In Gibraltar, over 200 birds hatched locally from eggs supplied from northern Morocco were released progressively in 2014; Prior to this habitat improvement measures, involving scrub clearance, and cat control, preceded these releases (McGowan and Kirwan 2013).
Conservation Actions Proposed
In order to alleviate pressure from hunting, legislation should be enforced where it exists and protected areas where shooting is banned should be created to provide safe areas and preserve suitable habitat. In the Canaries a moratorium on hunting should be introduced for one or two years to allow numbers to recover. Low-intensity farming should be promoted to protect and restore suitable habitats (Tucker and Heath 1994).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Alectoris barbara. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22678707A59941542.Downloaded on 18 March 2018.|
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