||Pipile pipile (Jacquin, 1784)
||Trinidad Piping-guan, Common Piping Guan, Trinidad Piping-Guan, Trinidad White-headed Curassow, Trinidad White-headed Piping Guan
||Pava de Trinidad, Pava Rajadora, Yacutinga Cariazul
Aburria pipile ssp. pipile (Jacquin, 1784) — Stotz et al. (1996)
||SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
||69 cm. Medium-sized, black-and-white cracid. Mostly blackish-brown with faint purplish gloss. Extensive white tips to wing-coverts. Mainly dark crest with whitish streaking. Pale blue cere and basal part of bill. Darker blue dewlap. Red legs. Similar spp. Only cracid on Trinidad. Voice Thin piping. In display makes rattling whirr with wings.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||James, C., Nelson, H., Ffrench, R., Hayes, F., Poon, S., White, G. & McGowan, P.
||Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Symes, A., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Isherwood, I., Pilgrim, J., Wege, D., Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A., Butchart, S., Martin, R, Wheatley, H.
This species has been extirpated from several areas. It is listed as Critically Endangered because the population is now extremely small and is assumed to be decreasing because of continuing illegal hunting and habitat loss. There is some evidence to suggest that the population may now be growing and if further evidence confirms this then the species may be downlisted in the future.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2013 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2012 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2010 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2006 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1988 – Not Recognized (NR)
|Range Description:||Pipile pipile is endemic to Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago), where it was once abundant throughout the Northern Range and the southern Trinity Hills, and also occurred in lowland areas such as the Nariva Swamp and Aripo Savannas. It is now extinct in the lowlands, and probably extinct in the Trinity Hills, where surveys have failed to find the species since 1994, although there is one credible report from Victoria Mayaro reserve in 2000, suggesting that a few may persist (Hayes et al. 2009; Nelson et al. 2011). The species is probably extinct in central Trinidad, where it has not been reported since 1983 (Hayes et al. 2009; Nelson et al. 2011). The only confirmed extant population is in the eastern portion of the Northern Range, where 150-350 km2 of suitable habitat remains (Hayes et al. 2009). The population is estimated at 77-231 individuals and unlikely to exceed 200 in total (Hayes et al. 2009). There is no data for population trends, but the species's range has declined historically due to hunting and habitat loss and the population is still assumed to be declining. Recent observations of the species in areas where it had not been reported within the past century suggest that the population may now be growing (Hayes et al. 2009), but more evidence is required to confirm this.|
Trinidad and Tobago
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||2000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||1-5||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||400|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||900|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It feeds in the canopy of remote lower and upper montane rainforest, preferring steep, hilly areas with numerous streams, sparse ground-cover, a closed canopy and abundant lianas and epiphytes (F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008), and is known from elevations of 10-925 m (Hayes et al. 2009, F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008). It is known from secondary vegetation and cultivated land near to primary forest, and formerly occurred in semi-evergreen forest (R. Ffrench in litt. 1998, F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008); it seems to tolerate humans as long as canopy trees are available and it is not hunted (F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008). The species can thrive when hunting pressure is reduced and canopy trees are left intact within small-scale agricultural plantations: these are the two main requisites for conservation (Hayes et al. 2009). Very little is known about its breeding, but breeding seems to take place in most months and two eggs are laid. It feeds mainly on fruits, but also eats flowers and leaves (F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||5.7|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. It has been legally protected since 1963. There have been conservation and education campaigns since the 1980s, which appear to have changed attitudes (F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008; S. Poon in litt. 1998; Hayes et al. 2009). Much of the present range is within forest reserves and state forests, but the laws protecting both species and areas are generally not enforced. Matura National Park was declared an Environmentally Sensitive Area in 2004 and protects a large area of suitable forest, but there is limited law enforcement at the site. There are plans to use radio-telemetry to learn more about the species's biology (R. Ffrench in litt. 1998, Hayes et al. 2009, F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008), and genetic studies are ongoing (Naranjit 2010, Grass et al 2016). Species-specific ecotourism is having a positive effect in the Grande Riviere, providing financial support for local communities and developing a sense of collective responsibility (R. Ffrench in litt. 1998). A recent questionnaire survey supported the idea that ecotourism was boosting awareness and attitudes towards conserving wildlife, although hunting behaviour remains unchanged (Waylen et al. 2009). The species is held in captivity (P. McGowan in litt. 2013) and the Pawi Study Group may begin a captive breeding programme in the future (S. Poon in litt. 1998).Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey areas of historic occurrence to determine its status in these areas. Determine ecological requirements and breeding biology through radio telemetry (Nelson et al. 2011). Develop a participatory monitoring program which engages with local communities and provides abundance and distribution data. Enforce the protection of current forest reserves. Formally establish the Matura National Park. Develop further education/public awareness campaigns, in particular working with hunters, to ensure the success of site protection. Investigate the potential risk to the remaining population from disease/parasites (Hirschfeld 2008). Assess feasibility of captive breeding and begin a programme if appropriate (Hirschfeld 2008, Nelson et al. 2011). Review national legislation to identify gaps in protection or conflicts with conservation of the species (Nelson et al. 2011).