||Pipile pipile (Jacquin, 1784)
||Trinidad Piping-guan, Common Piping Guan, Trinidad Piping-Guan, Trinidad White-headed Curassow, Trinidad White-headed Piping Guan
||Pava de Trinidad, Pava Rajadora, Yacutinga Cariazul
Aburria pipile ssp. pipile (Jacquin, 1784) — Stotz et al. (1996)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||69 cm. Medium-sized, black-and-white cracid. Mostly blackish-brown with faint purplish gloss. Extensive white tips to wing-coverts. Mainly dark crest with whitish streaking. Pale blue cere and basal part of bill. Darker blue dewlap. Red legs. Similar spp. Only cracid on Trinidad. Voice Thin piping. In display makes rattling whirr with wings.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||James, C., Nelson, H., Ffrench, R., Hayes, F., Poon, S., White, G. & McGowan, P.
||Benstead, P., Butchart, S., Symes, A., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Isherwood, I., Pilgrim, J., Wege, D., Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A., Butchart, S., Martin, R
This species has been extirpated from several areas. It is listed as Critically Endangered because the population is now extremely small and decreasing because of continuing illegal hunting and habitat loss.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2013 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2012 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2010 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2006 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR)
- 1988 – Not Recognized (NR)
|Habitat and Ecology:||It feeds in the canopy of remote lower and upper montane rainforest, preferring steep, hilly areas with numerous streams, sparse ground-cover, a closed canopy and abundant lianas and epiphytes (F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008), and is known from elevations of 10-925 m (Hayes et al. 2009, F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008). It is known from secondary vegetation and cultivated land near to primary forest, and formerly occurred in semi-evergreen forest (R. Ffrench in litt. 1998, F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008); it seems to tolerate humans as long as canopy trees are available and it is not hunted (F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008). The species can thrive when hunting pressure is reduced and canopy trees are left intact within small-scale agricultural plantations: these are the two main requisites for conservation (Hayes et al. 2009). Very little is known about its breeding, but breeding seems to take place in most months and two eggs are laid. It feeds mainly on fruits, but also eats flowers and leaves (F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||5.7|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. It has been legally protected since 1963. There were conservation and education campaigns in the 1980s, but new initiatives in 1997-1998 appear to be finally changing attitudes (F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008, S. Poon in litt. 1998). Much of the present range is within forest reserves and state forests, but the laws protecting both species and areas are generally not enforced. Matura National Park protects a large area of suitable forest but there is limited law enforcement at the site. There are plans to use radio-telemetry to learn more about the species' biology (R. Ffrench in litt. 1998, Hayes et al. 2009, F. E. Hayes in litt. 1998, 1999, 2008), and genetic studies are ongoing (Naranjit 2010). Species-specific ecotourism is having a positive effect in the Grande Riviere, providing financial support for local communities and developing a sense of collective responsibility (R. Ffrench in litt. 1998). A recent questionnaire survey supported the idea that ecotourism was boosting awareness and attitudes towards conserving wildlife, although hunting behaviour remains unchanged (Waylen et al. 2009). The species is held in captivity (P. McGowan in litt. 2013) and the Pawi Study Group may begin a captive breeding programme in the future (S. Poon in litt. 1998). A two-year field study of the ecology and behaviour of the species was recently completed (Naranjit 2010). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey areas of historic occurrence to determine its status in these areas. Determine ecological requirements and breeding biology through radio telemetry (Nelson et al. 2011). Develop a participatory monitoring program which engages with local communities and provides abundance and distribution data. Enforce the protection of current forest reserves. Formally establish the Matura National Park. Develop further education/public awareness campaigns, in particular working with hunters, to ensure the success of site protection. Investigate the potential risk to the remaining population from disease/parasites (Hirschfeld 2008). Assess feasibility of captive breeding and begin a programme if appropriate (Hirschfeld 2008, Nelson et al. 2011). Review national legislation to identify gaps in protection or conflicts with conservation of the species (Nelson et al. 2011).