Casuarius casuarius 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Struthioniformes Casuariidae

Scientific Name: Casuarius casuarius (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Southern Cassowary
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 180 cm. Very large, black ratite. Adult black with bright blue neck. Red on lower nape. Red double wattle hanging from foreneck. Similar spp. Larger than Dwarf Cassowary C. bennetti and adult has high casque and double red wattle. Voice Booming display call and various rumblings and hissings, usually given when disturbed. Chicks make frequent, high pitched and frequency modulated whistles as contact calls to male. Hints Generally elusive in dense forest, it is most easily seen in Australia alongside certain roads and lodges.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cde ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Bishop, K.D., Westcott, D., Garnett, S. & Dutson, G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Garnett, S., McClellan, R., Stattersfield, A., Wheatley, H.
This species is believed to have undergone a rapid decline in the last three generations (44 years) in Australia, and declines of a similar magnitude elsewhere in its range are possible, with local extirpations reported from parts of New Guinea. It is therefore classified as Vulnerable. However, the decline in Australia resulted from an extraordinary rate of habitat destruction which has virtually ceased. Further information from New Guinea may indicate that the species would be better listed as Near Threatened if hunting and high-impact industrial logging does not increase in the large areas of existing habitat there.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Casuarius casuarius is found in New Guinea (Papua, formerly Irian Jaya, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), including the islands of Seram (where probably introduced) and Aru, and north-eastern Australia. It occurs throughout the lowlands of New Guinea except for the northern watershed from the Vogelkop to the Huon Peninsula (Coates 1985, Beehler et al. 1986). In Papua and adjacent islands, its status is unclear, but it may be more common than in Papua New Guinea. In Papua New Guinea, it has declined, and is now absent in some locations, including remote areas (Coates 1985, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1999). In Australia, there are 3 subpopulations in Queensland. The southern and largest population ranges from the Paluma Range north of Townsville to Mt Amos. Two populations occur further north on Cape York Peninsula: one in the McIlwraith Range and north to the Pascoe River, the other in the Jardine River National Park and Heathland Resources Reserve (Kofron and Chapman 2006). The Australian population was estimated to number c. 2,500 birds in 2010, but it is declining (Garnett et al. 2011).

Countries occurrence:
Australia; Indonesia; Papua New Guinea
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:2300000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:No data are available for New Guinea. Garnett et al. (2011) estimated the Australian population to number 2,500 mature individuals. As such, the total population is best placed in the band 10,000-19,999 individuals, equating to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  The species is suspected to be declining rapidly overall, based on the belief that it has suffered a rapid decline in Australia during the last three generations (Garnett et al. 2011).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:6000-15000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is a solitary and sedentary inhabitant of rainforest, occasionally using adjacent savannah forests, mangroves and fruit plantations. Its diet largely comprises fallen fruit, although it is fairly undiscriminating (Garnett et al. 2011). It ranges between 0 m and at least 500 m in Papua New Guinea (Johnson et al. 2004), and has been recorded up to 1,400 m in Australia.

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):12.5
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Australia, it was historically threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, the species is heavily hunted, captured and traded close to populated areas, being of high cultural importance, and constituting a major food source for subsistence communities (Coates 1985, Beehler et al. 1986, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1999). This hunting and trade is not sustainable in many areas and has led to its extirpation from some sites, as the species is traded at a sub-national level to supply markets in more densely populated areas (Johnson et al. 2004). Increasing human populations and the spread of shotguns used for hunting exacerbate hunting pressure on the species. However, although birds appear to be more common in unpopulated areas (Beehler et al. 1994, Burrows 1995), they can apparently survive in some hunted areas (Beehler 1985), probably those where traditional hunting techniques predominate. Industrial logging is threatening large areas of suitable habitat in New Guinea, with unknown but potentially significant impact on the species, and clearance for oil-palm plantations is a significant but unquantified threat. Cyclones are considered a threat to the species in Australia, with cyclones severely affecting Cassowary habitat in 2006 and 2011. In 2006, Cyclone Larry hit Queensland, affecting fruit production in tropical rain forests and causing the death of some cassowaries, either directly or as a result of starvation and exposure to other threats following the cyclone. In addition, following the cyclone some individuals could have ventured beyond forest fragments and may have suffered higher mortality through collisions with motor vehicles or attacks by dogs (L. A. Moore & N. J. Moore unpub. data to Bellingham 2008). Increased susceptibility to disease (e.g. tuberculosis) following such events may pose a threat to the species (Cooper 2008), although this is yet to be confirmed. Climate change could increase the severity of cyclones in the future. It should be noted, however, that even large cyclones have a severe effect on only a small proportion of cassowary habitat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
A recovery plan for the species in Australia was published in 2002 (Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service 2002) and updated in 2007 (Latch 2007). In Australia, programmes have been aimed at community education, localised habitat management, protection and revegetation, management plans for populations and high-risk individuals, surveys, survey and translocation methods, and habitat use. Temporary feeding stations have been installed in damaged areas following cyclones in Australia. Most remaining habitat is within protected areas (Westcott 1999, D. Westcott in litt. 1999, Garnett et al. 2011). A village based survey has been conducted in Papua New Guinea investigating sustainability of wildlife capture and trade (Johnson et al. 2004).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Quantify forest loss in New Guinea. Determine population densities, sizes and demographic trends throughout its range. In Indonesia and Papua New Guinea: Monitor populations in protected areas. Quantify the effects of hunting and logging. Promote community-based hunting restrictions. In Australia: Revise monitoring techniques and monitor key sites. Research population dynamics. Research  impact of cyclones, dogs, traffic, disease and fragmentation on persistence of small populations and on survivorship and demography. Prevent habitat clearance. Minimise cassowary road deaths and dog attacks, and assess impact of pigs. Undertake dog and pig control areas of in dense populations (Garnett et al. 2011). Investigate the feasibility and merits and, if appropriate, implement a translocation plan as part of rescue, rehabilitation and release. Identify areas and corridors to protect, restore, manage, develop and implement Cassowary Conservation Local Area Plans as part of local planning

Amended [top]

Amended reason: EOO updated

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Casuarius casuarius. (amended version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22678108A113047028. . Downloaded on 18 October 2017.
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