|Scientific Name:||Trachemys scripta|
|Species Authority:||(Schoepff, 1792)|
Chrysemys scripta (Schoepff, 1792)
Emys cumberlandensis Holbrook, 1840
Emys elegans Wied, 1839
Emys troostii Holbrook, 1836
Pseudemys scripta (Schoepff, 1792)
Testudo scripta Schoepff, 1792
Trachemys scripta (Schoepff, 1792) subspecies elegans (Wied, 1839)
Trachemys scripta (Schoepff, 1792) subspecies troostii (Holbrook, 1836)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Previously extending to Argentina with about 15 subspecies in North, Central and South America, most former subspecies have been elevated to species rank in recent years, leaving only Trachemys scripta scripta, T.s. troostii and T.s. elegans as current subspecies (see Seidel 2002, TTWG 2007, Fritz and Havas 2007, for details).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||van Dijk, P.P., Harding, J. & Hammerson, G.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Horne, B.D., Mittermeier, R.A., Philippen, H.-D., Quinn, H.R., Rhodin, A.G.J., Shaffer, H.B. & Vogt, R.C|
|Contributor(s):||Corti, C., Lymberakis, P., Cheylan, M., Hammerson, G.A., Geniez, P., Pérez Mellado, V., Lavin, P. & Mendoza-Quijano, F.|
Trachemys scripta is assessed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, and large population.
Trachemys scripta is native to the eastern and central United States of America (Iverson 1992). Its subspecies are disributed as follows:
T.s. scripta: Atlantic drainages from southern Virginia to northern Florida.
Introduced populations of T.s. elegans have been reported from Mexico: feral populations exist throughout the country; parts of the United States (Arizona, California, Hawaiian Islands, northeastern States); Guadeloupe (France): Occurs on Grande Terre and Basse Terre (Iverson 1992, Malhotra and Thorpe 1999); Portugal: widespread, especially in the south; Spain: widespread at low elevations; France: widespread, except in the north; Italy (scattered throughout the country); Slovenia (near Italian border region); Greece (Crete); Austria (Vienna region); Germany; southwestern Switzerland; Netherlands; Turkey; Israel; South Africa; Taiwan; Thailand; Cambodia; Indonesia; and Australia.
Native:Mexico (Coahuila); United States (Alabama, Arizona - Introduced, Arkansas, California - Introduced, Florida, Georgia, Hawaiian Is. - Introduced, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland - Introduced, Michigan - Introduced, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey - Introduced, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania - Introduced, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia)
Introduced:Cambodia; Canada; China; France; Germany; Greece; Guadeloupe; Indonesia; Israel; Italy; Japan; Netherlands; South Africa; Spain; Switzerland; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
United States: A widespread species that is common in its native range, and has established populations beyond its native range.
Mexico: locally common within its native range, and has established feral populations throughout the country.
In Europe it is becoming increasingly abundant, especially in Portugal, Spain and France.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
In its native range, Trachemys scripta is an inhabitant of a wide variety of waterbodies, and is most abundant in soft-bottomed shallow habitats with minimal flow, abundant access to sunlight and extensive vegetation. In Mexico, it is primarily a riverine species. In Europe, the species is an opportunistic inhabitant of freshwater habitats, generally in close proximity to human habitation and/or recreation centres.
Trachemys scripta is omnivorous and consumes a wide variety of plant and animal matter. Males may reach 24 cm carapace length (CL), females 29 cm. Maturity is reached at about 9-11 cm CL and two to five years in males, 15-20 cm CL and five to eight years. Longevity is about 30 years maximum. Generation time is probably around 12-15 years. Females produce 0-3 clutches of 5-20 eggs per year. Incubation takes 60-91 days. Hatchlings measure 23-35 mm (Thomas 2006, Ernst and Lovich 2009)
|Use and Trade:||
Trachemys scripta elegans is 'the' traditional pet turtle, farmed in large quantities in the southern USA for the global pet trade and in recent years also for raising for consumption in Asian countries; the latter is increasingly replaced by domestic, ex-situ farming in the consuming countries. Nearly all animals in commercial trade, which amounts to about 6 million individuals per year, are produced in near-closed-cycle farms. Wild harvest from native populations has involved mainly adult animals as breeder stock for farms, as well as adults for the domestic and international consumption trade; wild-caught females are sold to turtle farms, while surplus males enter the consumption trade. Eggs may be harvested from the wild.
Following a ban on the import of Trachemys scripta elegans into the European Union as a potential invasive, the pet turtle farming industry partly shifted to Trachemys scripta scripta, intergrades scripta x elegans, and other Emydid species. Attempts have been made in recent years to lift the US domestic pet trade ban.
Individuals and populations of Trachemys scripta can be under varying levels of impact from habitat degradation and loss, road mortality, pollution (particularly pesticides and heavy metals), and collection. These threats collectively are not perceived to endanger the survival of the species.
Populations in Europe are in places considered to represent a threat to local turtle species (through competition) and the ecosystem in general (competition, predation). Trachemys scripta elegans is included in the IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group's 100 Worst Invasives List.
Trachemys scripta is subject to a variety of State legislation and regulations. The species occurs in a substantial number of protected areas. European populations are either tolerated or their elimination is desired. The European Union has banned the import of T.s. elegans on the basis of of it being an invasive species, but other subspecies are being imported instead.
Awareness of the responsibilities of acquiring the species as a pet is needed, as are appropriate disposal options for unwanted pets and captured feral animals. Surveys, monitoring and research on the spread and ecological effects of feral populations is warranted.
|Citation:||van Dijk, P.P., Harding, J. & Hammerson, G.A. 2013. Trachemys scripta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 July 2014.|
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