|Scientific Name:||Tinca tinca|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
Hypothesised to be native in most of Europe where it is locally threatened by river engineering.
|Range Description:||Stocking throughout Europe for centuries has blurred the original distribution pattern. Hypothesised to be native in most of Europe, naturally absent only in Ireland, Scandinavia north of 61°30'N, eastern Adriatic basin and western and southern Greece where it is now introduced. In Asia, native eastward to western Yenisei drainage south of 60°N. Introduced to North and South Africa, Tasmania, Australia, New Zealand, India, North America, Chile and probably elsewhere.|
Native:Albania; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Holy See (Vatican City State); Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Jersey; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Typically in shallow, densely vegetated lakes and backwaters. Often overwinters buried in mud. Spawns among dense vegetation in still water.
Lives up to 20 years. Spawns for the first time at 2-6 years and 70-250 mm SL, females a year later than males. Pelvic rays more robust, longer and extending beyond anus in male. Spawns in May-October, in Central Europe usually in June-July, at temperatures above 19°C, mostly at 22-24°C. Several males follow each female, which releases eggs in several portions above vegetation. Females may spawn 1-9 times each year, every 11-15 days, if suitably warm weather persists. High embryonic mortality observed when temperature fluctuates strongly. Larvae and juveniles restricted to dense vegetation. Tolerant of low oxygen concentrations and salinities up to 12 ‰. Feeds on detritus, benthic animals and plant material. Adults often feed predominantly on molluscs.
|Major Threat(s):||River engineering.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Tinca tinca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 March 2015.|
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