|Scientific Name:||Spermophilus relictus|
|Species Authority:||(Kashkarov, 1923)|
Citellus relictus Kashkarov, 1923
Urocitellus relictus (Kashkarov, 1923)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
This species is common in suitable habitats within its moderately large range. It faces no major threats and is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is distributed in Western and Central Tien Shan and western parts of peripheral ranges of Pamir Alai. Its range consists of several separated areas. It is found from 500 to 3,200 m.|
Native:Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is common, partly rare, partly abundant. It is most abundant (25 individuals per ha) during young dispersal period, at altitude 2,600-2,800 m. In 1983, in Gissar State Reserve (Uzbekistan at altitude 2,000-2,300 m) population density was 2,8 individuals per ha (Volzheninov et al. 1986).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits mountain and partly piedmont steppes, from deserted wormwood and sheep fescue on loess ad rubbly soil to high altitude cereal and mixed grasses steppes and meadow-steppes with some alpine vegetation. It is found in juniper stang and in openings at lower border of coniferous forest. Avoid wet meadows and agricultural fields. |
In summer, day break in activity is very well pronounced. During hot days, as well as at night burrow exits are sealed with soil plug. Life cycle timing depends on the altitude and slope aspect. For example, hibernation ends from end of February (Issyk-Kul basin) to first decade of May (Chatkal highland). Young emerge from mid-May (lowlands) to second decade of June (Kuraminsky range). On overcast and windy days activity is reduced.
Burrows are simple, the majority of them are with one passage and one nesting cell. Wintering nest is at 1 - 1,5 m below ground, summer nests not lower than 1 m. They sometimes use burrows of voles and marmots. They feed mainly on underground plant parts, in spring consume green parts and flowers. To reach pea tree flowers the species climbs the trees. In some areas (Chatkal range) insects were up to 90% of stomach contents. It does not make caches. Reproduction is prolonged, beginning very much depends on spring weather. Average litters size depends on altitude, from 6 at 750-800 m, to 3-4 at above 2,000 m.
|Generation Length (years):||2-3|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to the species.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is a trade animal of minor importance. In 1950s up to 45,000 skins per year were collected, but to 1990s it lowered up to 10,000 skins per year. Found in some protected areas in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan (Sary-Chelek State Reserve) and Uzbekistan (Gyssar State Reserve).|
|Citation:||Cassola, F. 2016. Spermophilus relictus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T20491A22264410.Downloaded on 26 May 2017.|
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