|Scientific Name:||Lepomis symmetricus Forbes, 1883|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, and large population size. Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable, or the species may be declining but not fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories under Criterion A (reduction in population size).
|Range Description:||Former Mississippi Embayment from southern Illinois (Smith 1979) to the Gulf Coast; Gulf Slope drainages from Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, to Colorado River, Texas; common in south-central part of range; occurred formerly above Fall Line in Illinois (Page and Burr 1991).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Number of distinct occurrences is unknown but surely exceeds 80. At the northern end of the range, Smith (1979) stated that the species was known extant at just two locations in one county. Known from three sites in two of the largest remaining swamplands in southeastern Missouri (Pflieger 1997). Etnier and Starnes (1993) mapped 21 collection sites in Tennessee, but they stated that the species persists in just a few natural lakes and overflow swamps. Robison and Buchanan (1988) mapped about 26 collection sites in all major drainages in Arkansas for the period 1960-1987, with two additional pre-1960 sites; nearly all of these appear to constitute distinct occurrences. Lee et al. (1980) mapped over 100 collection sites in Louisiana and eastern Texas, the area that comprises the core of the species' range.|
Total adult population size is unknown but likely exceeds 10,000. Uncommon in Tennessee, except in Reelfoot and Isom lakes (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Much more common in southern Arkansas than in the eastern part of the state (Robison and Buchanan 1988).
More widespread in Illinois prior to 1908 than after 1950 (Smith 1979).
Warren et al. (2000) rated this species as currently stable in the southern United States.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Mostly in lowland sloughs, oxbows, lakes, ponds, and swamps with a mud bottom; often associated with heavy vegetation, stumps, and logs. Eggs are laid in a nest made in the bottom by the male.|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Extirpated from areas in Illinois as a result of habitat alteration (Smith 1979). Probably more widespread in southeastern Missouri before the area was ditched and drained (Pflieger 1997). Channelization probably has destroyed many former habitats in Tennessee, resulting in range fragmentation (Etnier and Starnes 1993).|
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.|
|Citation:||NatureServe. 2013. Lepomis symmetricus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T202561A18230405.Downloaded on 14 August 2018.|
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