|Scientific Name:||Semotilus lumbee Snelson & Suttkus, 1978|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Snelson, F.F., Jr. and Suttkus, R.D. 1978. A new species of Semotilus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) from the Carolinas. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 3: 1-11.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species has a somewhat small extent of occurrence, but it is listed as Least Concern in view of the large number of subpopulations, apparently stable trend, and lack of major threats (though substantial development is occurring in the region).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Range encompasses headwaters of Coastal Plain streams of the Cape Fear, Little Pee Dee, and Pee Dee river drainages, Carolina Sandhills, south-central North Carolina and north-central South Carolina (Snelson and Suttkus 1978). Occurrences are mostly in the upper Lumber River system (Pee Dee drainage) and also in adjacent tributaries of the Yadkin and Cape Fear drainage. Known distribution was extended north in 1991 with the discovery of three new sites in Deep River, North Carolina, and south with the discovery of four new sites in the Lynches and Wateree rivers in South Carolina (Rohde and Arndt 1991).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by a fairly large number of occurrences (subpopulations) and locations. During a 1988-1991 survey, this species was found at 15 of 26 previously reported localities and 38 new localities, for a total of 53 currently known sites (Rohde and Arndt 1991).|
Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. Species is fairly common in small range.
Probably stable in North Carolina (H. LeGrand, pers. comm., 1997). Stable in South Carolina (S. Bennett, pers. comm., 1997). Extirpated from at least seven historical sites as the result of habitat degradation; populations at 53 known localities apparently healthy, and habitat quality appears excellent; none of these populations appear to be in jeopardy (Rohde and Arndt 1991).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes slow-flowing headwaters, creeks, and small rivers with sand and gravel bottoms and sparse vegetation. Spawning occurs over pits made by males in gravel bottoms; male covers eggs, forming a mound or ridge of gravel.|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
The main threat is habitat alteration or modification. The Carolina Sandhills area is increasingly stressed by agriculture, residential development, and tourism; specific impacts include damming headwaters of streams to create ponds for golf courses and for their irrigation; agriculture, lumbering, and road management practices that sometimes result in stream siltation; and pesticide use that may cause water pollution. Successful reintroduction of the beaver has converted much habitat from lotic to lentic habitat. Impoundments are highly detrimental, resulting in altered habitat and favour competitive and predaceous species such as the redbreast sunfish, bluegill, and largemouth bass (Rohde and Arndt 1991). In North Carolina, the species is not considered very threatened, though there are some problems with agricultural runoff, etc. (H. LeGrand, pers. comm., 1997).
Jelks et al. (2008) categorized this species as Vulnerable, based on present or threatened destruction, modification, or reduction of habitat or range.
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research actions.|
|Citation:||NatureServe. 2013. Semotilus lumbee. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T20107A19033162.Downloaded on 17 August 2018.|
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