|Scientific Name:||Satan eurystomus Hubbs & Bailey, 1947|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Hubbs, C.L. and Bailey, R.M. 1947. Blind catfishes from artesian waters of Texas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan 499: 1-15.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it is represented by only one or a few locations. Trend is unknown. The species is vulnerable to groundwater depletion: if overpumping of the aquifer occurs, this could drive the species to Extinct or Critically Endangered in a short time frame.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Known range includes five artesian wells penetrating the San Antonio Pool of the Edwards Aquifer (Edwards Limestone, Lower Cretaceous) in and near San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is represented by a small number of occurrences (subpopulations), perhaps only one.|
Total adult population size is unknown but apparently large.
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is unknown.
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes subterranean waters at depths of 305–582 m and temperature of 27 °C. Two or three of the five wells have produced this species and Trogloglanis pattersoni.|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
This species is potentially threatened by overpumping of the aquifer, which is the primary source of water for people in the region. In the 1990s the world's largest water well (at that time) was drilled close to the known habitat of the species, and the water was briefly used to support a catfish farm; subsequently the well and water rights were purchased by the San Antonio Water System, which now uses the well for aquifer monitoring purposes. Depletion of the aquifer poses a threat by possibly allowing the poor-quality anaerobic water of the "bad water" zone to replace good-quality water where the fish now resides (G. Longley, The Handbook of Texas Online).
Pollution from industrial and agricultural sources is a potential threat, but protection of the aquifer for human uses will probably also protect the fish.
|Conservation Actions:||Protection of the quality of San Antonio's water source and safeguards against excessive depletion should adequately protect the habitat of the Widemouth Blindcat.|
|Citation:||NatureServe. 2014. Satan eurystomus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T19917A19032828.Downloaded on 25 May 2018.|
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