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Cyclothone braueri 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Stomiiformes Gonostomatidae

Scientific Name: Cyclothone braueri Jespersen & Tåning, 1926
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Bent-tooth Lightfish, Brauer's Bristlemouth, Brauer's Eye-nosed Fish, Bristlemouth, Garrick, Glaucus, Palometa
French Cyclothone de Brauer, Palomine
Spanish Pez Luminoso

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2013-05-22
Assessor(s): Harold, A.
Reviewer(s): Weller, S., Strongin, K., Polidoro, B. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
Cyclothone braueri is a mesopelagic, circumglobal species which is found between the latitudes of 67°N-40°S. It is very abundant in museum collections and can be locally abundant. This species is not utilized. There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for C. braueri. Therefore, this species is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Cyclothone braueri is a circumglobal species which is found in subtropical to Antarctic and Arctic waters (Harold in press). This species is widespread throughout the Eastern Central Atlantic, Mauritania to Angola, including the Cape Verde Islands, Gulf of Guinea Islands. It is found between the latitudes of 67°N-40oS, and has a recorded depth range of 10-2,000 m (Reiner 1996), although it is more typically found at depths between 200-900 m (Fricke 1999).



Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Algeria; American Samoa; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil (Trindade); British Indian Ocean Territory; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Chile (Easter Is.); China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Denmark; Disputed Territory (Paracel Is., Spratly Is.); Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland), Galápagos); Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Faroe Islands; Fiji; France (Clipperton I., France (mainland)); French Guiana; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Amsterdam-St. Paul Is., Mozambique Channel Is.); Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Iceland; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati (Kiribati Line Is., Phoenix Is.); Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Malta; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Monaco; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Niue; Norfolk Island; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Philippines; Pitcairn; Portugal (Azores, Madeira, Portugal (mainland)); Puerto Rico; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Kuril Is.); Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Ascension, Saint Helena (main island), Tristan da Cunha); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa (Marion-Prince Edward Is.); Spain (Canary Is., Spain (mainland)); Sri Lanka; Suriname; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Tokelau; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turks and Caicos Islands; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Alaska, Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., Johnston I.); Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Western Sahara; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – Antarctic; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – northeast; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):2000
Upper depth limit (metres):10
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Cyclothone braueri is one of the most commonly caught species in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean (Mauchline and Gordon 1985). It was the most abundant species in both the meso- (zero to 1,000 metres) and bathypelagic (1,000-5,000 metres) zones of the Sargasso Sea, representing 47% and 41% of the total catch. It represented 90% of all specimens captured from 400 to 800 metres depth, and was co-dominant with the congener C. palida at depths of 400-1,000 metres (Sutton et al. 2010). This species is likely to be locally abundant in the Eastern Central Atlantic. It is not known whether there is substantial immigration/emigration from outside the region that will significantly affect subpopulations in the Eastern Central Atlantic.

Population structure
The population of C. braueri has two peaks in the length-frequency distribution in the eastern North Atlantic, one corresponding to males and immature females of smaller standard length, and the other to larger, mature females. In the autumn, a third peak which represented a large influx of juveniles was evident. Although the general shape of the length-frequency distribution did not vary with latitude (study performed from 20-60°N), the size distribution was found to be latitudinally-dependent, with peak abundances occurring at lower standard lengths for both males and females, and maximum size at maturity tending to decrease with decreasing latitude (McKelvie 1989). Partial sequences taken from widely separated localities in the western South Pacific, the western North Atlantic, and the Mediterranean Sea showed virtually no intraspecific variation for the 12S and 16S rRNA genes (Miya and Nishida 1996). 

Centres of abundance
In the eastern North Atlantic, Cyclothone braueri was present at greatest densities at 30°N in both the spring and autumn (McKelvie 1989). Cyclothone alba is abundant in museum collections (1,117 lots), and the majority of collections contain many individuals (>15 specimens per lot; FishNet2 Database searched February 2013).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The diet of C. braueri is characterized by low diversity of prey items. It feeds primarily on copepods (Palma 1990).

Cyclothone braueri is a short-lived, semelparous species. Females mature and spawn for the first time in their second year. Maximum size and size at maturity tend to decrease with decreasing latitude - size at maturity has been reported at between 20-22 mm SL. Although the general shape of the length-frequency distribution did not vary with latitude (study performed from 20-60oN), the size distribution was found to vary by latitude, with peak abundances occurring at lower standard lengths for both males and females, and maximum size at maturity tending to decrease with decreasing latitude (McKelvie 1989). Spawning occurs seasonally at high latitudes, and tends to be more protracted at lower latitudes. Observations from 30oN indicated that spawning was almost continuous at this latitude. Juveniles occurred in the greatest numbers in autumn in higher-latitude areas where spawning occurred seasonally (McKelvie 1989).

Cyclothone braueri
is a relatively shallow-water member of the genus Cyclothone. This species is found in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical oceanic habitats, which are characterized by high faunal diversity (Hopkins and Sutton 1998). This species tolerates a broad array of light regimes (Roe 1983).
Systems:Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no use and trade information available for this species and it does not appear to be directly utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Cyclothone braueri is a major prey item of the commercially important deepwater shrimp Aristeus antennatus, and is likely to be impacted by fisheries targeting this species (Cartes et al. 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for C. braueri.

Citation: Harold, A. 2015. Cyclothone braueri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T198757A42691694. . Downloaded on 22 May 2018.
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