|Scientific Name:||Trigla lyra Linnaeus, 1758|
Trigla fagianus Rafinesque, 1810
Trigla lyra var. propontidis Steindachner, 1895
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||García, M., Quigley, D. & Ralph, G.|
|Contributor(s):||Garcia, S., Golani, D., Palmeri, A. & Keskin, Ç.|
European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
Listed as Data Deficient as there is no information available on the population trends. Research should be conducted in order to determine the status of this species, as it is a species of major commercial importance and it is threatened by overfishing, which has been responsible for the decline of the species in the north of the Bay of Biscay.
|Range Description:||In the east Atlantic, this species is present from the north of British Isles and the North Sea to Madeira and Walvis Bay, Namibia.|
In the Mediterranean Sea, it occurs in suitable habitats throughout the region. Specific records include the south Adriatic Sea (Ungaro et al. 1999), Tyrrhenian Sea (Colloca et al. 2004), Turkish lagoons (Akin et al. 2005), Strait of Sicily (Gristina et al. 2006), east Ionian Sea (Mytilineou et al. 2005), Tracian Sea (Labropoulou and Papaconstantinou 2005), Catalan Sea (Colloca et al. 2006), Gulf of Lion (Gaertner et al. 1998), Cretan Sea (Kallianiotis et al. 2000) and Egyptian coasts (Abdallah 2002).
Its depth lower limit is 700 metres, while its upper limit is 30 metres.
Native:Albania; Algeria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Cyprus; Denmark; Egypt; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Ireland; Israel; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Portugal (Madeira, Portugal (mainland)); Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland), Spanish North African Territories); Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Population:||This species is moderately common. Aggregated catch statistics for all Triglidae species show a more or less stable catch of 3,000-8,000 mt per year since the 1970s (FAO Fishstat).|
According to Gristina et al. (2006), this species was sampled during two trawl surveys (Autumn 1997 and Autumn 1998) carried out in the Strait of Sicily, using an otter trawl with a 28 mm cod-end mesh opening. Mean density values ranged from three to 115 specimens/km2, from 62 hauls (trawls).
Although the population trend is unknown, overfishing with most fishing gears, but especially bottom trawls, is responsible for the reduction of the species North of the Bay of Biscay. While the species was very common in 1957 (Bauchot et al. 1957), it was rare in 1998 (Quero 1998).
It is considered to be common locally in Irish offshore waters, particularly off the south and southwest coasts of Ireland (Went and Kennedy 1976).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a bathydemersal species, found on rocky and soft and subtrata, including sand and mud (Bianchi et al. 1993) off the coast at depths of up to 700 m (Muñoz et al. 2002). While in the Ligurian Sea this species was recorded in depth ranging from 30 to 350 m (Relini et al. 1986), elsewhere it has been recorded to 700 m. Its lifespan is of seven years, and its maximum size is 60 cm (TL).|
The dietary preferences of this species is mainly composed by ophiures and crustaceans (Brachiura, Macrura and Natantia) and in less proportion by hydroids, polychaetes, fish and small crustaceans. Certain variation on dietary composition preferences is observed during the fish development. Ophiuroids gradually diminish as length increases, while Brachiura and Natantia increase. Significant seasonal variation has not been observed in the diet composition. More common preys are benthic and generally not highly mobile (eg. brittle stars). It was observed in captive specimens that the use of the spines of pectoral fins is directed to detect their prey (Macpherson 1979).
Drops of oil in the mature oocyte indicate that spawning is pelagic. Almost all aspects of its reproduction are still unknown (Muñoz et al. 2002).
|Use and Trade:||
This is a species with major commercial interest, and it is regularly or occasionally present on markets in Morocco and Turkey, being sold fresh or chilled (Fischer et al. 1987). Also, it is the most commercially important Gurnard in Greece (Caragitsou and Papaconstantinou 1994, Muñoz et al. 2002). It is not commercially targeted in Irish waters and most likely discarded and/or not identified to species level in Gurnard landings (Quigley 2005).
Olim and Borges (2006) reported discards of several species of triglids, T. lyra among them, caught by three different methods (crustacean trawl, fish trawl and purse seine) off the Algarve coast.
Since this is a species with major commercial interest, it is impacted by semi-industrial fishing in Spain, Sicily, Yugoslavia, Cyprus and Egypt, and craftsmanship. It is mainly caught with trawls, beach seines, gill nets, longlines and handlines (Fischer et al. 1987). Overfishing with most fishing gears is responsible for the reduction of the species in the North of the Bay of Biscay.
|Conservation Actions:||The species is not listed in any National Red Lists or Red Data Books. There are no specific conservation actions in place for this species, but its distribution overlaps with protected areas throughout its range, such as the Natura 2000 area El Cachucho, in Spain. Further research should be conducted to determine the population trends of the species.|
|Citation:||Álvarez, H. 2015. Trigla lyra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T198756A18989329.Downloaded on 14 December 2017.|
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