|Scientific Name:||Rhinolophus pusillus|
|Species Authority:||Temminck, 1834|
Rhinolophus blythi Andersen, 1918
Rhinolophus cornutus Temminck, 1835
Rhinolophus cornutus Andersen, 1918 subspecies blythi
Rhinolophus gracilis Andersen, 1905
Rhinolophus imaizumii Hill & Yoshiyuki, 1980
Rhinolophus minor Horsfield, 1823 [preoccupied by Vespertilio ferrumequinum minor Kerr, 1792]
Rhinolophus monoceros K. Andersen, 1905
Rhinolophus perditus K. Andersen, 1918
Rhinolophus pumilus K. Andersen, 1905
|Taxonomic Notes:||Li et al. 2006 conducted a phylogenetic analysis of east Asian small horseshoe bats and concluded that Rhinolophus monoceros (endemic to Taiwan), R. cornutus (endemic to Japan), and R. pumilis (endemic to Japan) should be considered geographical subspecies of R. pusillus. This new taxonomic arrangement is followed here.
Francis et al. (1999) point out those specimens from Lao PDR identified as R. pusillus may represent a complex of species.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Hutson, A.M., Kingston, T. & Walston. J.|
|Reviewer/s:||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern as the species is widespread and locally common. There are no major threats and it occurs in many protected areas throughout its range.
|Range Description:||This species has a very wide range from South Asia eastwards to Japan, occuring also in southern and southwestern China, including Taiwan, southwards through mainland Southeast Asia to Indonesia and Borneo. The distribution of the geographically isolated subspecies is given below.
Subspecies pusillus is widely distributed in South Asia, southern and southwestern China and much of Southeast Asia. In South Asia it is widely distributed and is presently known from India (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal) and Nepal (Central and Western Nepal) (Molur et al. 2002). Recently collected from Kothaiyar Dam site in Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu (Vanitharani et al. 2005). In China, it has been recorded from Sichuan, Guizhou, Hubei, Fujian, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan Island and Yunnan (Smith and Xie 2008). It appears to be present throughout most of continental Southeast Asia, ranging from Myanmar in the west, to Viet Nam in the east and as far south as Peninsular Malaysia. It has also been recorded from Indonesia (including the Mentawi Islands and the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali), and from Kalimantan (Indonesia) and Sabah (Malaysia). In South Asia it has been recorded from 200 to 1,370 m asl (Molur et al. 2002).
Subspecies <monoceros is endemic to Taiwan, Province of China (Smith and Xie 2008). It occupies low elevations on the island (Chen et al. 2006).
Subspecies cornutus is endemic to Japan. It ranges from Hokkaido south to Okinoerabu on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Sado Islands, Izu-Oshima, Niijima, Miyake, Mikura, Hachijo, Tsushima, Iki, Fukue, Yaku, Tane, Kuchinoerabu, Amami-Oshima, Kakeroma, and Tokunoshima (Abe, 2005). It includes as a synonym perditus which is found only on the Yaeyama Islands (Iriomote, Ishigaki, Taketomi, and Kohama), and imaizumii (described from Iriomote) (Abe, et al., 2005).
Subspecies pumilus is endemic to Japan, where it is found on three islands in the Ryukyus: Okinawa, Iheya, and Kume. The species is believed to have become extinct on Miyako (30 years ago) and Irabu (probably around 5 years ago).
Native:Cambodia; China; India; Indonesia (Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is.); Japan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Myanmar; Nepal; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
It appears to be widespread and common throughout its range.
Subspecies pumilus breeding colonies are on Okinawa, where the subpopulation is estimated at 5,000 or more. Only three major breeding colonies of 200, 1500 and 2000 individuals are currently known (Ministry of the Environment, 2002). On the smaller two islands, the total subpopulation is less than 300 individuals.
|Habitat and Ecology:||It has been recorded from both primary and secondary tropical moist forest, roosting in caves (up to 1,500 animals in China) and houses (usually a smaller colony size). Animals have been recorded foraging low over bamboo clumps in limestone areas (Molur et al. 2002; Smith and Xie 2008). This species is characterized as a forest-interior specialist that is not readily adaptable to open habitats (Chen et al. 2006).|
|Major Threat(s):||There appear to be no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||The species has been recorded from Phamong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary in Sikkim and Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu in India. Ecological studies and population monitoring are needed (Molur et al. 2002). It is present in numerous protected areas in Southeast Asia. Subspecies <pumilus is listed as Endangered (EN) in the Japanese Red List (2007)|
|Citation:||Hutson, A.M., Kingston, T. & Walston. J. 2008. Rhinolophus pusillus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.|
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