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Rhinolophus macrotis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CHIROPTERA RHINOLOPHIDAE

Scientific Name: Rhinolophus macrotis
Species Authority: Blyth, 1844
Common Name(s):
English Big-eared Horseshoe Bat
Taxonomic Notes: The mainland populations probably represent two distinct species. The Philippine form of R. macrotis was initially described as a separate species, R. hirsutus (Anderson, 1905), but was later subsumed under R. macrotis by Tate (1943) but hirsutus is morphologically and genetically distinct (Guillen et al. in Csorbaet al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Molur, S., Srinivasulu, C. & Francis, C.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species ranges from northern South Asia, into southeastern China and Southeast Asia. In South Asia, this species is presently known from Bangladesh (Chittagong division), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Uttaranchal and West Bengal), Nepal (Central and Western Nepal) and Pakistan (Punjab) (Molur et al. 2002). In China it has been recorded from Sichuan, Shaanxi, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou and Guangxi. In Southeast Asia, it has generally been recorded from northern Myanmar and Thailand, northern Lao PDR and Viet Nam, Peninsular Malaysia (and the island of Tioman), Sumatra (Indonesia), and the Philippines where it has been recorded from the islands of Guimaras, Luzon [Abra and Pampanga provinces], Mindanao [Bukidnon Province], Negros, Palawan (Esselstyn et al. 2004) and Samar (Gonzales unpublished data). It has been recorded from 200 up to 1,692 m asl (South Asia) (Molur et al. 2002).
Countries:
Native:
Bangladesh; China; India; Indonesia (Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Thailand; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Though this species is widely distributed in its range in South Asia it is known from a few localities and has a small colony size. The population size of this species is low and a declining trend in the population is inferred (Molur et al. 2002). In Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand it is rare in tall lowland forest and also hill forest in Peninsular Malaysia (Bumrungsri and Francis pers. comm. 2006) and widespread but seemingly uncommon in the Philippines (Heaney et al. 1998).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: In South Asia, this species roosts in abandoned mines and caves in forests (Molur et al. 2002). Its flight is fast and high and feeds on coleopterans and dipterans (Bates and Harrison 1997). Other than being a cave roosting species, there are few details available on the natural history of this species in China. In Myanmar and Viet Nam it is associated with limestone caves at an altitude of around 1,000 m asl, and has been found at a large cave in disturbed secondary growth forest. It has been recorded from in caves in secondary forest in Lao PDR and lowland tropical moist forest in Peninsular Malaysia (C. Francis pers. comm.). In the Philippines, it has been recorded in lowland tropical moist forest, but is otherwise poorly known (Heaney et al., 1998). There are some records from forest caves. On Palawan Island, it has been reported from caves in disturbed lowland forest at 50 to 250 m asl (Esselstyn et al. 2004).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In South Asia, the habitat of this species is being deforested for timber, firewood and conversion for agricultural use. In Nepal it is threatened due to increase in tourism leading to disturbance to roosting sites; fumigation and chemical pesticides to rid the caves of roosts (T.K. Shreshta pers. comm. January 2002; Molur et al. 2002). In Southeast Asia, it is probably threatened in parts of its range (such as Malaysia) by ongoing habitat loss.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In South Asia, there are no direct conservation measures in place for this species. The species has not been recorded from any protected areas. Additional studies are needed into the distribution, abundance, breeding biology, general ecology and threats to this little-known species. Populations should be monitored to record changes in abundance and distribution. Habitat maintenance, conservation and restoration are needed. Public awareness activities need to be taken up to mitigate any further threats to this taxon (Molur et al. 2002). In view of its wide range in Southeast Asia, it seems probable that the species has been recorded from some protected areas, although this needs to be confirmed.

Citation: Molur, S., Srinivasulu, C. & Francis, C. 2008. Rhinolophus macrotis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 November 2014.
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