|Scientific Name:||Rhinolophus blasii Peters, 1867|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Needs revision. Relationship with R. empusa needs to be understood.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Jacobs, D., Cotterill, F., Aulagnier, S., Nagy, Z. & Karataş, A.|
Widespread, although patchily distributed. There are some large colonies and the global population is likely to considerably exceed 10,000. Although the population is declining in some areas (e.g. western Balkans), it is stable in others. Assessed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Rhinolophus blasii has a large range in the Palearctic and the Afrotropics, throughout which it is widely but patchily distributed. Its range extends marginally into the Indomalayan region.|
In Africa, it occurs from northeastern South Africa and the Democratic Republic of Congo, through south Malawi, to east Africa, Ethiopia and Somalia, and in north Africa. Follow Taylor (2000) for southern African distribution. In north Africa it is only present in Morocco and Algeria (it may occur in Egypt but there are no confirmed records as yet). It seems to occur also in northern Tunisia, although records are scarce (Peuchmaille et al. 2012). Altitude range is from sea level to 1,200 m.
In Asia, it has a patchy distribution extending from Turkey in the west to Pakistan in the east, and from the Caucasus in the north to Yemen in the south (Wilson and Reeder 2005). It was confirmed in Georgia in 2006 (Z. Nagy pers. obs.).
In Europe, it is extinct in northeastern Italy and has not been recorded in Slovenia during the last 50 years (Krystufek and Dulic 2001). Also recorded from western Anatolia and from the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine and Israel). It is now restricted to the Balkan peninsula and to some Mediterranean islands including Crete and Cyprus. There are no recent records in Romania and northern Bulgaria despite intensive work by Christian Dietz (Z. Nagy pers. comm. 2006). Past records from this area are disputed: no specimen has been found in museums in Romania, and the presence of R. euryale in the same area might have caused confusion (Z. Nagy pers. comm. 2006).
It occurs from sea level to 2,215 m in Yemen.
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Cyprus; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Greece (Kriti); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Jordan; Libya; Malawi; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Serbia; Somalia; South Africa; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Africa: Not very common.|
Asia: This species has a widespread distribution and the populations in Pakistan and Afghanistan seem to be stable and doing well (Molur et al. 2002).
Europe: A rare or infrequent species, probably the rarest horseshoe bat in Europe (Kryštufek 1999). Summer colonies of ca. 20-30 are typical, although up to 400 females may be found in a single colony. In winter, it congregates in mixed-species clusters with other Rhinolophus species (up to 2,000 animals in Serbia). There are large colonies in Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece. It is suspected to be declining because of loss of Mediterranean woodlands and cave disturbance, and is considered vulnerable in many range states (e.g., the western Balkans); however, the populations in the eastern Balkans are stable (Mediterranean Workshop 2007).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||In the Mediterranean region it typically forages in shrubland and woodland, although it may penetrate to desert habitat (Amr 2000). Summer roosts are situated in natural and artificial underground sites, with attics also being used in the northern part of the range. In winter, it hibernates in underground sites. This species is considered to be sedentary (Hutterer et al. 2005).|
|Generation Length (years):||9|
|Major Threat(s):||Threats to the species include loss of Mediterranean woodlands, disturbance and loss of underground habitats, and destruction of roost sites (Kryštufek 1999). In a number of range states the species is disturbed by tourist visits to caves and by use of the caves as shelters for livestock.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is protected by national legislation in some range states. There are international legal obligations for the protection of this species through the Bonn Convention (Eurobats) and Bern Convention in areas to which these apply. It is included in Annex II (and Annex IV) of the EU Habitats and Species Directive, and hence requires specific conservation measures in some range states, including the designation of Special Areas for Conservation. It occurs in some protected areas. Taxonomic research is needed to clarify the status of the African populations. Monitoring and protection of caves is also required.|
|Citation:||Taylor, P. 2016. Rhinolophus blasii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T19515A21972073.Downloaded on 21 October 2017.|
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