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Grammonus ater

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII OPHIDIIFORMES BYTHITIDAE

Scientific Name: Grammonus ater
Species Authority: (Risso, 1810)
Common Name(s):
French Fanfre Noir, Faufré Noir
Synonym(s):
Oligopus ater Risso, 1810
Oligopus niger Risso, 1827
Taxonomic Notes: It was inventoried under the name Oligopus ater in Risso (1810), and was recorded in Algeria under the name Grammonus armatus Dodelein (Dieuziede and Roland 1958).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-03-13
Assessor(s): Nielsen, J., Knudsen, S. & Uiblein, F.
Reviewer(s): Ralph, G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Kemp, J.R.
Justification:
Grammonus ater is restricted to the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, where very few specimens have been collected. However, it is suspected to be more common than the records suggest, as it is a cave-dwellling species. There is very little population or ecological information available for this species. There are no known major threats. Therefore, it is assessed as Least Concern.
History:
2013 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Grammonus ater is restricted to the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, where it is found in the Mediterranean Sea, from the Balearic Islands to the Adriatic (Nielsen et al. 1999). It has been reported as occurring at the Azores (Carniero et al. 2014), but this remains unverified. It is associated with depths of five to 30 m (Nielsen et al. 1999, Bussotti and Guidetti 2010).
Countries:
Native:
Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Greece (Greece (mainland), Kriti); Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Slovenia; Spain (Baleares)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – northeast; Mediterranean and Black Sea
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Nielsen et al. (1999) lists this fish as uncommon. In a study conducted in the Ionian Sea, the mean density of G. ater in shallow cliffs was 0.4 and the frequency of occurrence was 13.3% (Bussotti and Guidetti 2009). It is rarely caught; however, it is suspected to be more common than records suggest.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a reef-associated species that inhabits shallow rocky areas (Nielsen 1986). It is likely to be a deep dweller that migrates to coastal areas in August (Göthel 1992). It is nocturnal and hides in caves during the day (Göthel 1992). The maximum recorded length of this fish is 12 cm (Nielsen 1986).

Grammonus ater is strictly speleophilic, cave-dwelling, and is usually found only within the darkest interior portions of underwater caves (Bussotti and Guidetti 2010).

The main component of the diet of G. ater is benthic crustaceans (Costa 1991). 

Like other members of its family, G. ater is viviparous and the oval eggs are inside of a gelatinous mass (Breder and Rosen 1966).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Grammonus ater is of no interest to commercial fisheries (Nielsen et al. 1999).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no known threats towards this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures for this species. Its range overlaps with (and this species is confirmed to inhabit at least some) marine protected areas (Bussotti and Guidetti 2010).

Grammonus ater was previously listed as Least Concern in the Mediterranean and globally (Abdul Malak et al. 2011, IUCN 2011). 

Research is needed into the population size and trends, ecology and early life history, as well as potential threats of this species.

Citation: Nielsen, J., Knudsen, S. & Uiblein, F. 2014. Grammonus ater. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.
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