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Magnolia emarginata 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Magnoliales Magnoliaceae

Scientific Name: Magnolia emarginata Urb. & Ekman

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) A2ac ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2014-11-19
Assessor(s): Global Tree Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Oldfield, S.
Contributor(s): Khela, S.
Justification:
Magnolia emarginata is endemic to northern Haiti. Given the extremely high deforestation rates in Haiti, combined with no recent confirmed records of individuals, the continued survival of this species has to be questioned. A major storm destroyed forest in one area from which the species was collected and it is not certain whether this species survived (Cicuzza et al. 2007). It is not known to be held in any ex situ collections or to have been cultivated in the past. Further surveys are urgently required to determine if this species still exists in the wild. This species has been assessed as Critically Endangered due to a decline in forest cover in Haiti of  97% over three generations. It is inferred that this species population has gone through a similar decline of 80-100% in the last three generations. There is a continued decline in the population and degradation of the habitat due to continued deforestation and storm damage. Any significant future event of this kind could reduce any regeneration of this species if it still exists in the wild.
Date last seen: 1980s

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Magnolia emarginata is a species native to north Haiti occurring at elevations of 1,000-1,300 m asl with a potential forest distribution, used here as an estimate for the extent of occurrence (EOO), of 1,109 km2. A specimen was collected on the Massif du Nord, Anse à-Foleur, Morne Colombot at 900 m asl by Ekman in 1925.
Countries occurrence:
Possibly extinct:
Haiti
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):1000
Upper elevation limit (metres):1300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There have been no recent recordings of Magnolia emarginata and there is no population information available. There have been extremely high deforestation rates in Haiti since the introduction of coffee during the colonial period since 1730. The majority of the deforestation has occurred in the last century with an estimated forest reduction of 97% (McClintock 2003). Therefore, the estimated forest loss over three generations (180 years) is at least 97%. It is assumed that the species has suffered a similar decline and it is uncertain whether this species still exists in the wild.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Magnolia emarginata is an evergreen magnolia tree, reaching 30-50 feet tall. It has smooth branches and leathery leaves, with a notch at the tip of the leaves and creamy white flowers produced in June and fruits in March. It is native to forests in northern Haiti and is similar to Magnolia ekmanii. The generation length is estimated as 60 years.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):10-200,60

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is likely that Magnolia emarginata was used for its wood to produce charcoal and for construction of houses.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There has been a high level of deforestation in Haiti for fuel and charcoal which has lead to ecosystem degradation through soil erosion and flooding (Gill 1931). In 1925, Haiti was lush, with 60% of its original forest cover. Since then, the population (which is now at a density of c. 300/km2 and growing at a rate of 2.3% each year) has cut down all but c. 2%, and in the process fertile farmland soils have been destroyed, which in turn has contributed to desertification. With the threat of desertification it will be unlikely for this species to re-establish itself in Haiti (Williams 2011). Most Haitian logging is done to produce charcoal, the country’s chief source of fuel. Droughts, earthquakes and hurricanes are also serious threats to this region (Sergile 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is necessary to explore the remaining fragments of montane forests in the Massif du Nord to determine if Magnolia emarginata still exists there. This species is not known to be cultivated or propagated or to exist in any ex situ conservation programmes. It is also important to determine if this species still persists in the wild and to enforce habitat protection.

Citation: Global Tree Specialist Group. 2015. Magnolia emarginata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T193939A2291533. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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