|Scientific Name:||Narcissus poeticus L.|
Autogenes angustifolius Raf.
Autogenes poeticus (L.) Raf.
Hermione angustifolia M.Roem.
Narcissus angustifolius Curtis ex Haw.
|Taxonomic Notes:||There are several recognized sub-species of Narcissus poeticus: N. poeticus subsp. poeticus, N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus (Salisb.) Baker and N. poeticus subsp. verbanensis (Herb.) P.D.Sell. (emonocots 2013).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
Global and European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
The species has a wide distribution within Europe, where it is endemic, and the extent of occurrence (EOO) greatly exceeds the values needed for a threatened category. The area of occupancy (AOO) and population are also inferred to exceed the thresholds. No numerical data in relation to any declines is available. Any declines are suspected to be at a local scale only, and insufficient to have significant impacts on the overall population or to trigger a threatened category. It is assessed as Least Concern in the European Region and the EU 27.
|Range Description:||This plant is native to southern and east-central Europe and the range extends to the Ukraine (Govaerts 2010). It has been widely introduced to other parts of the world, for example, it is considered a neophyte in Germany (Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2012) and is recorded in Sweden, Finland and Denmark (GBIF 2013). It is cultivated elsewhere, for example, in the United States.|
Native:Albania; Andorra; Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Switzerland; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are a large number of specimen collections and observational records for this species (GBIF 2013). The majority are from the core countries central to its range and there are many recent, as well as historical, records.|
In the Ukrainian Carpathians, at the edge of the range, this is considered to be a rare species, but still forms a characteristic community forming white carpets when in flower (Kricfalusy 2013). It is inferred that the overall population is large and the overall population trend is suspected to be stable.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a species of damp meadows in mountains and is also found along roadsides. All parts of the plant are toxic to mammals, including humans (USDA 2010).|
|Use and Trade:||
Narcissus oil is used in the perfume industry and is a popular fragrance, it is obtained from several Narcissi and notably from this species (Groom 1997). Extracts of a chemical from the bulbs have been investigated for their viscous properties and used as an application with a fungicide to germinating seeds (Umarov 2009). Specific components in the mucilage of the bulb may have growth-inhibitory effects and may potentially have a future use in cancer treatments (Kornienko and Evidente 2008).
The species is cultivated in gardens and grown in plant nurseries and there are many hybrids and varieties. It is possible that it may occasionally be collected from the wild for horticultural use. It is irritant and emetic, but a homeopathic remedy is reportedly made from the bulb (Plants for a Future 2014).
|Major Threat(s):||This species has suffered from competition from other vegetation as a result of under-grazing or intensive grazing leading to tussock grassland, drainage of damp areas and intensification of agriculture, in some parts of its range, for example in the Ukraine (Nijland 2009).|
This species has some regional protective legislation in France (Tela Botanica 2013) and Narcissus poeticus ssp. radiiflorus is included in Annex 1 of the Bern Convention (Bilz et al. 2011). It is recorded from protected areas within its range, such as the Carpathian Biosphere reserve.
It is conserved ex situ, for example, it is grown in the Jerusalem Botanic Gardens and there is one accession in the National Plant Germplasm System of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA 2010).
|Citation:||Chadburn, H. 2014. Narcissus poeticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T193504A2239955.Downloaded on 23 February 2018.|
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