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Conus venulatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus venulatus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
Synonym(s):
Conus quaestor Lamarck, 1810

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-10-26
Assessor(s): Tenorio, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Seddon, M. & Monnier, E.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Seddon, M. & Peters, H.
Justification:
This species is endemic to the Cape Verde Islands where it is found in multiple locations around Boavista, Sal and Santiago.  This species is more widely distributed than many other Cape Verde endemics.  With beach tourism on the islands set to expand this could put further stress on populations of this species, however, coastal development is not thought to be significantly impacting the population at present.  Future monitoring of the development is warranted.  It is currently listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Cape Verde Islands where it is found on the islands of Boavista, Santiago and Maio.  Its widest distribution is off Boavista where it is found in multiple locations around the coastline, with an area occupied of approx 20 km within a total stretch of approx 40km of coast.  It is also present along the northern coast (both east and west) of Maio, 100 km to the south of Boavista, at Baía de Navio Quebrado, Porto Cais and Praia Real in the north for approx 7 km and 12 km to the south at Baía de Pau Seco off the western shores for 4 km (Monteiro et al 2004).  There are also several subpopulations in Santiago.  In total this species is known from three islands and one islet across multiple locations.

The reports of this species on Sal are now considered to be a different species: Conus ateralbus (Cunha et al. 2008).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Cape Verde
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – eastern central
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:62
Number of Locations:6
Lower depth limit (metres):15
Upper depth limit (metres):2
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is usually common in the range during the breeding season (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011). No changes have been seen in the populations during monitoring over the last 10 years so it is considered stable (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found buried in sand under rocks and on rock platforms at depths of between 2 and 15 m (Poppe and Poppe 2011). Adults of the species typically grow to 30-60 mm in length.  During the breeding season, this species is commonly encountered in shallow waters.  It is inferred from protoconch morphology that this species has non-planktotrophic larval development.
Systems:Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

In common with all Conus spp. and other molluscs, the shells of this species are traded for the specimen shell market.  There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed.  Their shells may also be gathered for the local tourist market and by tourists visiting the country, especially as they are one of the largest species in the Cape Verde Islands at 50+ mm (M. J. Tenorio pers. comm. 2011).   Shells for sale on the mollusc shell market as reported through specialist websites and dealer catalogues (Rice 2007) with medium prices may indicate reasonable abundance of this species and/or low demand.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

This species is common within its restricted  range. It is gathered by shell collectors, however, it is also larger than many other endemic species of Cape Verde Conus.  Although there are potential threats from coastal development it is not likely that this will significantly affect the population status in the near future.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species has a restricted  range and would benefit from further research into abundance and threats. There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.  There are already studies of the population genetics for this group (Cunha et al. 2008).

Citation: Tenorio, M.J. 2012. Conus venulatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T192455A2098106. . Downloaded on 16 August 2018.
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