|Scientific Name:||Scarus frenatus|
|Species Authority:||Lacepède, 1802|
Callyodon frenatus (Lacepède, 1802)
Callyodon sexvittatus (Rüppell, 1835)
Callyodon upolensis Jordan & Seale, 1906
Callyodon vermiculatus Fowler & Bean, 1928
Scarus randalli Schultz, 1958
Scarus sexvittatus Rüppell, 1835
Scarus vermiculatus (Fowler & Bean, 1928)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Russell, B., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region and there are no known major threats. It occurs in several marine protected areas in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found from the Red Sea to the Line and Ducie islands, north to southern Japan, south to Shark Bay, Western Australia and Lord Howe and Rapa islands. It is absent from the Hawaiian Islands (Randall 1986).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Archipelago); Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Cook Islands; Disputed Territory (Paracel Is., Spratly Is.); Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Guam; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati (Kiribati Line Is., Phoenix Is.); Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island), Rodrigues); Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is abundant in the Indian (Seychelles) and Pacific Oceans on reef crests and outer reef slopes. It is rare in Cocos Keeling (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
In Indonesia, it was only occasionally found in Raja Ampat (Allen 2003) and in Aceh, exploitation rate of this species in the wild is under MSY (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009).
It was only found in one marine reserve and is not included in any fishery catch data in the central Philippines (Stockwell et al. 2009).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is usually found on exposed outer reefs, sometimes in very shallow water (Randall et al. 1990). Juveniles occur among coral and rubble of lagoon reefs. It grazes on benthic algae (Sommer et al. 1996). It is generally solitary (Myers 1991) but can often be seen in schools of mixed species when feeding (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite (Choat and Robertson 1975).
The maximum age recorded in the Indian Ocean is 8 years and 20 years in the Pacific Ocean (Choat et al. 1996). It is faster growing and has higher turn over rates in the Indian Ocean (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
|Use and Trade:||This species is collected in local artisanal fisheries. It is not targeted.|
This species is fished in some parts of its range where destructive fishing practices and habitat destruction are prevalent. However, these threats are not considered to affect the overall status of its population.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
|Citation:||Russell, B., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Scarus frenatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2015.|
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