|Scientific Name:||Chlorurus gibbus|
|Species Authority:||(Rüppell, 1829)|
Scarus gibbus Rüppell, 1829
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is one of a clade of three large Chlorurus with an eastwest distribution. C. gibbus in the Red Sea, C. strongylocephalus in the Indian Ocean, C. microrhinos in the extreme east Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean (Myers 1999, Parenti and Randall 2000, J.H. Choat pers comm. 2010). Up until 2000, all species were called C. gibbus. Records of Pacific C. gibbus refer to C. microrhinos (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009). Randall and Bruce (1983) include all three species under C. gibbus.
Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is found in the Red Sea. It is fished throughout its range of distribution. It is more common in the northern part of its range and is found in a number of marine reserves. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is found in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba. It does not appear to occur in the Gulf of Aden. A survey done in the eastern Gulf of Aden in 2005 recorded Chlorurus strongylocephalus (J.H. Choat pers comm 2009). The record from Socotra needs to be verified.|
Native:Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Israel; Jordan; Saudi Arabia; Sudan; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – western
|Lower depth limit (metres):||30|
|Upper depth limit (metres):||2|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is uncommon in the Red Sea. Mean density of 23.9 individuals per hectare was recorded at Duba, Saudi Arabia (A.M. Ayling pers comm 2009).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is a large excavating Chlorurus up to 70 cm (Lieske and Myers 2004). It inhabits shallow reefs and adjacent sand areas of lagoons and bays at depths between about 2-30 m (G. Allen pers comm. 2009). It forms small schools.
There is limited information on its life history. The age record of 14 years (Choat et al. 1996) refers to C. microrhinos.
|Use and Trade:||This species is fished in the central Red Sea. It is an important parrotfish component of the Jedda fish market.|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range (i.e., Ras Muhammed Marine Protected Area).|
|Citation:||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus gibbus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T190753A17777914. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.|
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