|Scientific Name:||Chlorurus bleekeri|
|Species Authority:||(De Beaufort, 1940)|
Callyodon bleekeri De Beaufort, 1940
Scarus bleekeri (De Beaufort, 1940)
Scarus cyanotaenia Bleeker, 1854
|Taxonomic Notes:||Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae.
The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008). The sister pair C. bleekeri and C. bowersi share particularly distintive cheek patches of green/white (C. bleekeri) to solid green/blue (C. bowersi), a double chin strap of blue, and nearly identical fin colorations (Smith et al. 2008). C. troschelii is also likely a member of this clade (Choat and Randall 1986).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is heavily fished in about 70% of its range with significant population reductions recorded from some locations, such as in the central Philippines. However, it is a widespread species and is still common and not heavily fished at some sites over the eastern parts of its range and in Australia. It occurs in a number of remote areas and in marine reserves. Although there are numerous marine reserves in the Coral Triangle Region at the present time, most reserves are not very well managed. However, in well-managed reserves parrotfishes tend to recover comparatively quickly and therefore increased management in protected areas and potentially fishery protection might offset the overexploitation of this species. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. However, we recommend further monitoring of harvest levels and species catch data.
|Range Description:||This species is found from western Indonesia, to the Philippines, extending eastwards to Vanuatu, including the Great Barrier Reef. It is absent from Christmas and Cocos-Keeling. It was recorded from Aceh, Indonesia (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009). It was recorded from Vietnam (Dung 2007, R.F. Myers pers comm. 2010).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Fiji; Indonesia; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Nauru; New Caledonia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Timor-Leste; Tonga; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is not abundant over most of its range. It achieves greatest abundance in the central Philippines with 2-4 individuals per 500 m2 (Stockwell et al. 2009). It is considered to be the most abundant parrotfish in the Solomon Islands (Green et al. 2006). In the Solomons, it makes up approximately 10% of the catch. Since 2005, the percentage represented in the catch is increasing. The percentage of the smaller parrotfish is also increasing (Sabetian 2009).
In Karimunjawa National Park, Java Sea, underwater visual census (UVC) show that this species has displayed a 10-fold decrease in numbers from 2005-2006. In 2007, there was a 2-fold increase in Karimunjawa and Aceh (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009). It is common in Raja Ampat (Allen 2003).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is a moderately sized non-schooling species, characteristic of outer reef flats and slopes. It tends to inhabit sheltered to moderately exposed reef environments but rare on exposed ocean reef fronts. It is not recorded from exposed reefs in the Coral Sea. Large terminal phase males are usually between 30-40 cm (TL).
Generation length justification: 14(longevity) -2(age of maturity) = 7/2 = 3.5 or 4 years
|Use and Trade:||
This species is not targeted specifically but is taken by artisanal fishers by spearfishing both diurnally and nocturnally. It is also caught by nets, bamboo traps and dynamite in the Coral Triangle Region.
In Indonesia, this species was found salted in markets (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009). In Raja Ampat, it was not commonly found in the fish markets (Lazuardi & Muljadi pers comm. 2009).
Overfishing, destructive fishing practices and habitat degradation are the the major threats to this species in the Coral Triangle Region. In the Philippines, local fishing can reduce numbers of parrotfishes by 50-60% over a period of approximately 20-30 years (Stockwell et al. 2009).
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
|Citation:||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus bleekeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 August 2014.|
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