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Hipposcarus harid

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Hipposcarus harid
Species Authority: (Forsskål, 1775)
Common Name(s):
English Candelamoa Parrotfish, Indian Ocean Longnose Parrotfish, Longnose Parrotfish, Candeloma Parrotfish
French Kakatoi Blanc, Perroquet Candelamoa, Poisson-perroquet Chevalin
Spanish Loro Candelamoa
Synonym(s):
Callyodon harid (Forsskål, 1775)
Hipposcarus harid vexillus Smith, 1959
Pteronason longicauda Swainson, 1839
Scarus cyanurus Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus harid Forsskål, 1775
Scarus latus Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus mastax Ruppell, 1829
Scarus ruppelii Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus wurk Ehrenberg, 1840
Taxonomic Notes: Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae.

This species has been previously confused with Scarus longiceps, a species that occurs in the eastern Indian Ocean to the western Pacific Ocean.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2009-09-16
Assessor(s): Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.
Reviewer(s): McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.
Justification:
This species is widely distributed throughout the Indian Ocean. There no major threats known for this species and it is found in marine protected areas in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
History:
2010 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the Western Indian Ocean from the Red Sea south to Mozambique Channel, including Madagascar and Seychelles and east to Sri Lanka, Maldives and the Chagos Archipelago. It has also been recorded in Karimunjawa, Halmahera and Raja Ampat, Indonesia (A. Lazuardi, M.E. Muljadi and S. Pardede pers comm. 2009). It is likely to occur in Karimunjawa but not in Raja Ampat and Halmahera (R.F. Myers pers comm. 2010). Records in the Coral Triangle region need to be verified.
Countries:
Native:
British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Archipelago); Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); India; Indonesia; Israel; Jordan; Kenya; Madagascar; Maldives; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island), Rodrigues); Mayotte; Mozambique; Myanmar; Réunion; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is abundant in the Red Sea with recorded densities of 8 individuals per 1, 000 m2, where it is caught in the net fishery along the Egyptian coast. It is more abundant in the northern part of the Red Sea and less abundant in the Seychelles with densities recorded at 2-4 individuals per 1,000 m2 (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).

It is rare in Aceh and Karimunjawa, Indonesia (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits coastal regions associated with coral reefs and reef flats. It forms groups consisting of a terminal phase individual and numerous initial phase individuals (Lieske and Myers 1994). It also forms large foraging schools (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009). It feeds on benthic algae (Sommer et al. 1996). The maximum published weight is 2.3 kg (Bruce and Randall 1984).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is caught with nets and other artisanal gear. It is mainly sold fresh.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):  There is some localized fishing in the Red Sea but this is not considered to affect the overall population of the species.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations.   Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

Citation: Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Hipposcarus harid. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.
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