|Scientific Name:||Scarus rubroviolaceus|
|Species Authority:||Bleeker, 1847|
Callyodon africanus Smith, 1955
Callyodon jordani (Jenkins, 1901)
Callyodon macleayi Jordan & Seale, 1906
Callyodon ruberrimus Jordan & Seale, 1906
Callyodon rubroviolaceus (Bleeker, 1847)
Margaritodon africanus (Smith, 1955)
Pseudoscarus frontalis Macleay, 1883
Pseudoscarus heliotropinus Bryan, 1906
Pseudoscarus jordani Jenkins, 1901
Pseudoscarus rostratus Gunther, 1909
Scarus calus Fowler, 1904
Scarus jordani (Jenkins, 1901)
Scarus paluca Jenkins, 1901
Scarus ruber Bleeker, 1862
|Taxonomic Notes:||There is strong evidence of genetic break between Pacific and Indian ocean populations. However, there is no clear evidence of morphological differentiation (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Choat, J.H., Myers, R., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Rocha, L.A., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific. It is one of the most abundant and widespread of all parrotfishes. It is a component of subsistence fisheries and is heavily fished in parts of its range. There have been indications of localized population declines in Indonesia, Philippines and the Solomon Islands. It is found in a number of marine reserves and in remote localities. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. Although there are numerous marine reserves in areas where this species is heavily fished (Coral Triangle Region), most reserves are not very well managed. However, in well-managed reserves parrotfishes tend to recover comparatively quickly and therefore increased management in protected areas and potentially fishery protection might offset the overexploitation of this species. We recommend further monitoring of harvest levels and species catch data.
|Range Description:||This species is found from the East coast of Africa to the Hawaiian and Line islands, French Polynesia (except Rapa and Austral Islands), northwards to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara Islands, Japan, southwards to Australia and New Caledonia. It also occurs in the eastern tropical Pacific.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Archipelago); Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Colombia (Colombia (mainland), Malpelo I.); Comoros; Cook Islands; Costa Rica (Cocos I., Costa Rica (mainland)); Disputed Territory (Spratly Is.); Djibouti; Ecuador (Ecuador (mainland), Galápagos); El Salvador; Eritrea; Fiji; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Guam; Honduras; Hong Kong; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati (Kiribati Line Is., Phoenix Is.); Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island), Rodrigues); Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Nicaragua; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., Midway Is., Wake Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southeast; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is generally abundant, especially near its range limits, such as in the eastern tropical Pacific (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
In Indonesia, this species was recorded as common but not abundant in Aceh with estimates of 40-60 individuals per hectare (S. Pardede pers comm. 2009), moderately common in Raja Ampat (Allen 2003) and Kupang, west Timor (B. Russell pers comm. 2009). It was recorded in marine reserves in the central Philippines but not from fished areas (Stockwell et al. 2009).
Over the Pacific, abundance estimates record 2-3 individuals per 1,000 m2. In the Western Indian Ocean (Amirantes Seychelles), it was the most abundant large Scarus with abundance estimates of 10-20 individuals per 1,000 m2 (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is a large Scarus (Robertson and Allen 2002) that may form dense schools (300-400 individuals). It is found solitary or in pairs (G. Allen pers comm. 2009). It occurs on non-reefal rocky areas (Robertson and Allen 2002) and on coral reefs (Lieske and Myers 1994). It extends to deeper parts of the reef to 36 m (Humann and DeLoach 1993). It is a fast growing species with maximum age recorded at 15 years in Oman, 11 years in Seychelles and 12 years in the Great Barrier Reef (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is collected for food in artisanal fisheries. It is the 2nd or 3rd most important species in the parrotfish fishery in 2004, but by 2006 the importance of this species in the fishery had declined in the northern Solomon Islands (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009). In Guam, it made up 4% of the parrotfish catch from 1985-2007 (Division of Aquatic and Wildlife Resources unpub. data).|
This species is fished in some parts of its range where destructive fishing practices and habitat destruction are prevalent. It is heavily fished in the northern Solomon Islands with evidence of a decline in mean size and numbers of this species in the markets from 2004-2006. It is the second or third most important species in the parrotfish fishery in 2004, but by 2006 the importance of this species in the fishery had declined (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
|Citation:||Choat, J.H., Myers, R., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Rocha, L.A., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Scarus rubroviolaceus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
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