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Scarus coelestinus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Scarus coelestinus
Species Authority: Valenciennes, 1840
Common Name(s):
English Midnight Parrotfish, Nightowl Parrot
Spanish Guacamaya Negra, Loro de Medianoche, Loro Negro
French Perroquet Noir
Synonym(s):
Pseudoscarus plumbeus Bean, 1912
Pseudoscarus simplex Poey, 1865
Scarus rostratus Poey, 1860
Taxonomic Notes: Records of this species in Brazil are to be treated as Scarus trispinosus.

Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2009-09-18
Assessor(s): Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.
Reviewer(s): McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.
Justification:
This is the third largest parrotfish in the Caribbean. Large individuals are targeted by fishermen and there is anecdotal evidence suggesting population declines. However, there are no catch landings data available that indicate a decrease in the population. It is therefore listed as Data Deficient. Further research is needed on its population status and harvest levels.
History:
2010 Data Deficient

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found from Bermuda and South Florida to Venezuela.
Countries:
Native:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire); Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Currently population size/trends have not been assessed. This species is not present in FAO global production estimates, however, it is not abundant and anecdotal evidence suggests they may be decreasing in numbers.

Anecdotally, this species was present in the Antilles and Barbados but is not present there now. It is the most abundant large scarid at Las Rocas, Venezuela (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is reef associated from 5-75 m. It feeds on algae and can be observed (and heard) using their beaks to crunch off pieces of corals and other substrates during the day. It is more abundant along in-shore reef flats.
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is collected for food in commercial and artisanal fisheries.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): A commercial fishery exists for some of the larger individuals. Exact population figures for this species are not known, however, anecdotal evidence suggests it is decreasing in numbers in parts of its range (i.e., in Antilles and Barbados).

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations.   Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

Citation: Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Scarus coelestinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 September 2014.
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