|Scientific Name:||Chlorurus japanensis|
|Species Authority:||(Bloch, 1789)|
Callyodon abacurus Jordan & Seale, 1906
Callyodon blochi (Valenciennes, 1840)
Callyodon japanensis (Bloch, 1789)
Callyodon philippinus Fowler, 1918
Callyodon pyrrhurus Jordan & Seale, 1906
Chlorurus japonensis (Bloch, 1789)
Chlorurus pyrrhurus (Jordan & Seale, 1906)
Scarus blochii Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus japanensis Bloch, 1789
Scarus pyrrhurus (Jordan & Seale, 1906)
Scarus viridis Bloch, 1790
|Taxonomic Notes:||Taxonomy of this species has seen a number of changes and is frequently referred to as C. pyrrhurus (Jordan and Seale 1906). This is a synonym. The sister species is C. capistratoides, an Indian Ocean species (Randall and Choat 1980, Choat and Randall 1986). C. sordidus is considered to be a species pair sharing a disjunct color pattern on the caudal peduncle (Smith et al. 2008).
Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is a small and widespread parrotfish. It is not targeted in any particular fishery and occurs in marine protected areas in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found from Ryukyu Islands to eastern Indonesia and the Great Barrier Reef, east to Samoa, and Palau.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Disputed Territory (Spratly Is.); Fiji; Guam; Indonesia; Japan; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Solomon Islands; Taiwan, Province of China; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is generally rare over most of its range but can be locally abundant.
Abundance estimates in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea record 7.8 individuals per 1,000 m2. In the northern Great Barrier Reef, the southern limit of this species' range, estimates record <.1 individuals per 1,000 m2 (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009). It is occasionally found in Raja Ampat (Allen 2003).
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is a small excavating parrotfish. It is found solitary or in small groups on reef fronts and in sheltered seaward and lagoon reefs to 20 m.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is a component of artisanal and subsistence fishing. It is not targeted.|
In some parts of its range in the Coral Triangle region, this species it locally threatened by fishing and habitat loss from from coastal development, pollution and climate change.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
|Citation:||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus japanensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 April 2015.|
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